Navigant Research Blog

Beyond Energy and Pizza

— November 7, 2017

As November rolls through and autumn settles in the Northern Hemisphere, attention quite naturally turns to energy. Not only was October Energy Action month, but the changing of seasons marks a time to reflect on how the built environment consumes energy. As we put our air conditioners away and turn our heaters on, autumn gives us time to reflect: Can we be doing this better?

Indeed, there is near universal consensus that action should be taken to reduce energy intensity and carbon emissions. But taking steps to increase energy efficiency affects far more than just energy costs and greenhouse gases. To explore this concept, let’s look at a theoretical pizza parlor (October was also national pizza month, after all). What energy action should this restaurant take?

Popular Energy Conservation Measures

The first answer is likely an evaluation of HVAC systems. According to the most recent Johnson Controls Energy Efficiency Indicator Survey, investments in HVAC improvements were the most popular energy conservation measure last year. For restaurants, kitchen exhaust can create a substantial cost. Cooking causes grease to splatter and can create odors, steam, and smoke, all of which need to be exhausted out of the kitchen. The wood-burning oven in the pizza parlor, for instance, will need to exhaust all of its smoke out of the restaurant. But replacing this air with conditioned outside air can be expensive, particularly in hot and cold climates.

Air Challenges

Some restaurant owners take a shortcut by shutting off their make-up air unit. This puts the entire restaurant under negative pressure, which forces air to infiltrate in through cracks in doors and windows. Though it may save some on utility bills, it is ultimately a Pyrrhic victory: it creates an unpleasant, drafty environment in the dining room and it could even pull in odors from outside. A far better energy action would be to ensure that ventilation and all HVAC are properly balanced, all equipment is properly maintained, and any old, inefficient equipment is replaced with ENERGY STAR equipment.

Lighting Challenges

After HVAC, lighting should be the next concern. LED retrofits typically provide quick payback in energy savings based on the initial investment. But in addition to energy, lighting (like HVAC) creates the atmosphere of the pizza restaurant. That atmosphere affects patron behavior and will ultimately drive business performance. According to a study published in the Journal of Marketing Research, consumers are more likely to select less healthy food options in restaurants that are dimly lit and healthier options when restaurants are bright. That’s great news for the pizza parlor: by installing dimming controls on lighting, it’s possible to not only cut back on energy, but also drive pizza sales.

The Broad View of Energy

Taking action on energy stretches far beyond utility bills and carbon emissions. Those are noble objectives, but building owners and operators are increasingly looking beyond these effects to justify investment in the built environment. Though simplistic, the pizza parlor example highlights how to improve the customer experience and drive sales with investments in energy action. In reality, a broader set of controls, analytics, and efficient equipment can help many businesses reduce costs and increase revenue.


Transforming the Way We Live, Work, and Move with Wireless Power: Part 2

— May 17, 2017

This post originally appeared on the MIT Enterprise Forum of Cambridge website.

Development of any new technology, particularly one that goes to market in a technology licensing business model, cannot be performed in a bubble. It requires the feedback of users to refine future advances. There simply is no market for a technology that doesn’t provide a compelling value proposition. The development of wireless power is no exception.

As mentioned in part 1 of this blog series, the MIT Enterprise Forum of Cambridge CleanTech Committee brought together a panel of experts to recount this journey from lab technology to commercial product and reflect upon future applications for wireless power. The panel, Transforming the Way We Live, Work & Move, was moderated by Benjamin Freas, principal research analyst at Navigant Research. It included Marin Soljačić, PhD, professor of Physics at MIT and founder of WiTricity; Alex Gruzen from WiTricity; Ajay Kwatra from Dell; and Patrizia Milazzo from STMicroelectronics.

The Partner Landscape

Indeed, much of the panel was composed of WiTricity partners that are helping to deliver on the vision of making a broad range of products truly wireless. Kwatra relayed Dell’s journey through wireless power implementation. Wireless power is not a new concept to Dell; it shipped its first laptop with wireless charging capabilities in 2009. Dell’s vision is to enable true all encompassing mobility by providing a cable-less desk. Wi-Fi introduced freedom from the Ethernet cable, and now the last cord is power.

The first early foray used inductive coupling rather than WiTricity’s magnetic resonance technology. As a result, the laptop required precise placement in order to charge and provided a poor experience. Though magnetic resonance solved this problem, it was not ready for implementation in a laptop. WiTricity relied on input from Dell as it established the efficiency and wattage needed. Dell knows how its products are used and what challenges users face, so it was able to bring this expertise to WiTricity in a partnership to create a viable product.

The Road Ahead

Wireless charging of mobile phones has already reached mass-market adoption and is beginning to appear in laptops and EVs. However, the actual use of wireless power—even in devices that are equipped with it—has been persistently low. Consumer awareness remains a challenge. Current wireless power technology does not provide users with a truly wireless experience.

Nonetheless, the future of wireless power is promising. The increased reliance on electronics and the constant need to power them are driving wireless adoption. Increased awareness and use of wireless power functionality have been generated as a result of the creation of more devices that have wireless charging capabilities and the expansion in public wireless charging infrastructure.

In the future, the expansion of wearable electronic devices and Internet of Things (IoT) devices will further magnify the need for new power solutions. The establishment of public wireless charging infrastructure in locations such as coffee shops and airports is expected to reinforce adoption through the network effects they create. But user experience will be the ultimate driver of wireless power.


Transforming the Way We Live, Work, and Move with Wireless Power: Part 1

— May 8, 2017

This post originally appeared on the MIT Enterprise Forum of Cambridge website.

Nikola Tesla first experimented with transmitting power without wires at the turn of the 20th century. Until recently, the concept has remained impractical and expensive in everyday applications. Today, the proliferation of mobile phones, electrification of transportation, and impending Internet of Things (IoT) renaissance have translated into a rapid expansion of devices that need electricity. All the while, technological advances have improved the amount of power that can be transferred wirelessly, the distance it can travel, and how efficiently it can be moved, making wireless power a commercial reality.

The MIT Enterprise Forum of Cambridge CleanTech Committee brought together a panel of experts to recount this journey from lab technology to commercial product and to reflect upon future applications for wireless power. The panel, Transforming the Way We Live, Work & Move, was moderated by Benjamin Freas, principal research analyst at Navigant Research. It included Marin Soljačić, PhD, professor of Physics at MIT and founder of WiTricity; Alex Gruzen, CEO at WiTricity; Ajay Kwatra, vice president of Client Technology & Architecture for Dell; and Patrizia Milazzo, Energy & Power management specialist at STMicroelectronics.

The Birth of a Company

For WiTricity, this journey started in 2007, when Professor Soljačić published a paper demonstrating the transfer of 60W with 40% efficiency over distances in excess of 2 meters. The impetus for this research came from a sleepy revelation after Professor Soljačić was awakened by his mobile phone at 3 a.m. The phone beeped when the battery was low. If he neglected to plug it in, it would disrupt his sleep.

Though the use case for mobile phones was clear, the distances and power levels associated with the technology have many more applications. The task of charging is a burden for many devices. For EVs, the act of plugging into a charge creates another friction point that can potentially deter consumers. Similarly, wearables present a charging challenge—they often have unusual form factors that make plugs awkward, yet still need to be charged.

Industrial and medical applications of wireless charging are also emerging. Increased automation in manufacturing has translated to mobile robots on factory floors. These robots need power. Designing a robot to navigate to a wireless charging pad is far simpler than designing one to insert a power cord. Applying this to an operating theater creates the possibility of charging surgical tools after they have been sealed and sterilized, eliminating the need to do so during a medical procedure. This same freedom even enables medical devices that can be completely sealed and powered and charged in situ.

Which Application to Pick?

Wireless power has the ability to transform a diverse range of industries through multiple applications. The challenge for a startup is to narrow down options and focus on a strategy that can be executed. For WiTricity, the best way to change the world was to enable other companies that built products to make their products better by incorporating wireless power technology. This meant a strategy of licensing its technology to partners that create products rather than creating the products themselves.

The initial challenge, according to Professor Soljačić, was attracting talented people to navigate the development of the technology from a laboratory prototype to prolific components of numerous products. Ultimately, WiTricity aims to provide its technology in a simple development kit so that anyone can incorporate it into their design. However, developing this “resonance-in-a-box” solution requires more than technological expertise. It requires the deep understanding customer pain points and the market intricacies associated with specific industries. As Alex Gruzen stated in the panel, “When you are a startup, your customers are partners.”

More to come on the road ahead in part 2 of this blog series.


It Happened Again: Another Leak

— March 10, 2017

A major cybersecurity vulnerability has happened again. A bug in the code of Cloudflare, a provider of content delivery networks, Internet security services, and distributed domain name services, appears to have leaked encrypted, private data from some of the company’s 4 million clients.

According to security researcher Tavis Ormandy, “private messages from well-known services, [personally identifiable information] from major sites that use Cloudflare, and even plain text application program interface requests from a popular password manager” were included in website code generated by Cloudflare’s ScrapeShield feature.

Intelligent and Vulnerable Buildings

There is no reason to believe the bug in Cloudflare will present a vulnerability to any intelligent building. Cloudflare is used for websites, not buildings. But this incident is a reminder of how easily data can leak onto the Internet, even with the best of intentions. An increasing amount of building data is being collected and stored using the Internet. Indeed, large datasets have the potential to improve energy and operational efficiencies. In Navigant Research’s Data Integration for Intelligent Buildings report, the market for the incorporation of data from commercial buildings to develop analytics platforms is forecast to grow by an order of magnitude over the next decade.

With more gateways necessary for data collection, more points are available for cyber attacks to occur. Attackers seeking entry into corporate networks look for the path of least resistance. This could be an unpatched or improperly configured gateway for a building management system. But—perhaps the more pervasive threat (as demonstrated by the Cloudflare vulnerability)—is that data stored anywhere could be leaked. The very reasons why building data promises better business operations can turn sinister in the wrong hands.

Retailers, for instance, can analyze occupancy data to create consumer heat maps to optimize store layout. But that same data could be used to estimate financial performance based on customer footfall; this non-public information could be used to boost a trader’s position on the retailer’s stock. Moreover, the same occupancy tracking could be used to facilitate theft, stalking, or even terrorism in a variety of commercial facilities, including offices, healthcare, or education buildings. Despite these potential risks and the inherent difficulty in keeping data secret, the improved energy and operational efficiencies created by better connected buildings promise to change commercial buildings for the better.


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