Cleantech Market Intelligence
Gasification Projects Drive Smart Waste Evolution
As the waste industry slowly evolves toward more integrated solutions for municipal solid waste (MSW) management, increasing volumes of trash are now being handled by so-called smart technologies. Waste-to-fuels (W2F) – a subsegment within the energy recovery market that converts MSW into finished fuels, like ethanol and jet fuel – has become especially active, with advanced gasification technologies reaching important commercial milestones.
Enerkem, a Canadian company that recently gained first-mover status with the opening of a 10 million gallon per year (MGY) waste-to-methanol plant in Edmonton last month, is the first pure-play W2F project in development to reach the commissioning stage. The company plans to add an advanced ethanol module later this year. In April, British Airways and U.S.-based Solena Fuels (which are jointly developing GreenSky London, a 19 MGY facility converting landfill waste into jet fuel, bionaptha, and renewable energy) announced the selection of a site to commence commercial development and commissioning by 2017.
Faced with high capital costs, both projects depend on the low cost and widespread availability of waste as a feedstock to drive initial viability and future expansion.
According to World Bank estimates, nearly 1.5 billion tons of MSW is generated globally each year. This total is expanding rapidly due to urbanization and rising levels of affluence in developing economies across Asia Pacific and Africa.
While 16% of MSW generated globally is never collected in the first place, and 27% is diverted for either material or energy recovery, more than 50% is still dumped in landfills, according to Navigant Research estimates. Although there is plenty of trash to go around for higher value applications like W2F, market development depends on tightening regulations driving landfill diversion, since landfilling is typically the lowest-cost solution in areas where waste is actively managed.
In Western Europe, and to a lesser extent, North America, where waste diversion is gaining the most traction, momentum appears to be increasingly on the side of emerging companies like Enerkem and Solena Fuels commercializing breakthrough energy recovery conversion technologies.
As forecast in Navigant Research’s report, Smart Waste, annual revenue in the smart MSW technology market – of which, energy recovery is a key subsegment – is expected to more than double from $2.3 billion in 2014 to $6.4 billion in 2023. Annual revenue from smart MSW technologies is expected to surpass conventional technologies by 2019.
Annual MSW Management Revenue by Technology Type, World Markets: 2014-2023
(Source: Navigant Research)
While Waste Management in North America remains an active investor in Enerkem and other early-stage companies commercializing smart MSW technologies and solutions, traditional waste haulers face a revenue decline similar to that faced by traditional electric utilities. As more MSW is targeted as a strategic feedstock, there is less trash for waste haulers to manage, resulting in less and less revenue.
Despite this evolution, companies like Enerkem and Solena Fuels still have a long road ahead. These companies must compete for municipal contracts – in most cases, with traditional waste haulers – often pitting the high capital cost of an advanced energy conversion facility against landfilling on one hand and relatively inexpensive fossil fuel refineries on the other.
Enerkem’s Edmonton facility is estimated to cost $7.50 per gallon of production capacity to build. GreenSky London, which incorporates the Fischer-Tropsch gasification process to convert MSW to synthetic gas (syngas), is expected to cost more than $14.00 per gallon of production capacity. While the initial capital cost of such facilities is expected to decline over time, both platforms will depend on multiple revenue streams to be commercially viable.