Cleantech Market Intelligence
Sensor Technology Not Yet Ready for Self-Driving Cars
According to Navigant Research’s report, Autonomous Vehicles, some limited self-driving vehicles will arrive by 2020, but widespread adoption of full-function autonomous vehicles won’t happen until at least the late 2020s. Over the next 15 years, manufacturers are expected to continue making incremental progress with more capable assist systems and semi-autonomous systems, such as the Super Cruise system recently announced by General Motors and the Advanced Highway Driving Assist from Toyota.
Many of the vehicles sold today already contain most of the essential building blocks to enable them to operate autonomously. However, a new study from AAA indicates those pieces are not yet all that reliable or consistent. Based on that, it’s reasonable to deduce that we cannot yet trust those systems for full automation, and drivers must remain fully engaged in vehicle operation.
AAA recently conducted a series of tests of blind spot monitoring and lane departure warning systems and found that the performance can vary widely among different vehicles and under different conditions. “AAA’s tests found that these systems are a great asset to drivers, but there is a learning curve,” says John Nielsen, AAA’s managing director of Automotive Engineering.
Enhancement, Not Replacement
Automakers have always marketed these features as assist systems meant to augment rather than replace the control of an attentive driver. For example, the lane-keeping assist that is part of many such systems can automatically provide some correction to help prevent the vehicle from drifting out of a lane. However, these systems typically also monitor the driver using sensors in the steering wheel or torque feedback in the steering column to prevent hands-off driving.
Advanced Driver Assist Sensors: Ford Fusion
(Source: Ford Motor Co.)
Similarly, blind spot monitoring sensors don’t negate the need to check mirrors regularly while driving. The sensitivity and field of view of each vehicle depends on where the manufacturer has positioned the sensors behind the rear bumper cover. Each of the vehicles tested by AAA would detect vehicles or cyclists in the adjacent lanes at different times.
My own experience driving a wide variety of vehicles equipped with both types of assists has been as spotty as the results from AAA indicate. Lane departure systems use digital cameras and sophisticated image processing algorithms to look for lane markers painted on the pavement, and all of the systems currently on the market only function at speeds above 35 mph to 40 mph. The problem arises when the lane markers aren’t clearly visible or don’t exist at all. On a rural road or residential street with no markings, you’re completely on your own.
Alerts and Alarms
Another problem is the lack of consistency in how alerts are presented to drivers by different manufacturers. Vehicles can have audible, visual, haptic alerts, or a combination of these. Sometimes, the systems are overly sensitive and trigger so many alerts that drivers are tempted to disable the system to avoid being annoyed, thus defeating the purpose. Other times, the monitors don’t provide an alert until it’s too late to be useful.
Sensing systems will need to be robust enough to provide accurate warnings or control inputs under all driving conditions, and designers will have to develop human-machine interfaces that provide information to drivers without being overwhelming.