Cleantech Market Intelligence
The Global Biofuels Industry: A Promising Future
As I described in my previous blog, the global biofuels industry faces an uncertain future amid declining crude prices and a surge in shale oil production in key markets like the United States. Creating even greater uncertainty, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced that it is abandoning 2014 rulemaking around production quotas for biofuels under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2), a clear concession to the controversy that has plagued the rule in recent years.
While these shifts will likely further dampen investor appetite for biorefinery projects focused on producing biofuels for ground transportation, the industry continues to advance on several fronts.
The commercial aviation industry, for example, has played an important role in driving research and development investment as well as providing a strong demand signal to producers. More than 25 international carriers from all global regions have tested or piloted biofuels programs in the last 3 years. These efforts have resulted in more than 60,000 biofuel miles flown according to Navigant Research’s report, Aviation and Marine Biofuels.
Commercial Airline Biofuel Miles Flown by Flight Type, World Markets: 2008-2013
(Source: Navigant Research)
Earlier this month, Boeing completed a test flight using a blend of 15% green diesel – a synthetic, drop-in substitute for diesel – and 85% petroleum jet fuel. To meet growing demand, several high-profile, dedicated biojet biorefinery projects have begun construction. Led by the Oslo Airport’s commitment to receive 660,000 gallons of biojet fuel beginning in March 2015, emerging bioports also demonstrate a commitment to ensuring that biofuels play a permanent role in future aviation.
The advantage commercial aviation offers the advanced biofuels industry is consolidated infrastructure and like-minded potential off-take partners. According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), 1,600 airports worldwide fuel 95% of the world’s flights. This compares to more than 161,000 gas stations in the United States alone. This lowers the capital needed to invest in infrastructure to bring fuel to the customer and streamlines contracting opportunities that should accelerate commercial deployment of biojet fuel under favorable market conditions.
The U.S. Navy is also moving forward with its goal of sailing its Great Green Fleet in 2016, a fleetwide overhaul aimed at integrating energy conservation into the U.S. fighting fleet, in part by powering ships and aircraft using biofuels. In anticipation, the Navy has procured nearly a half million gallons of advanced biofuels to support early testing and certification initiatives. Biofuels were also included in the Navy’s annual procurement for bulk fuels this year for the first time ever.
But non-road transportation applications are not the only area where biofuels are gaining ground in energy applications in recent months.
In the developing economies of Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, the wide availability of biomass, combined with limited access to reliable sources of energy, provides significant opportunities to expand the utilization of bioenergy as a primary energy source. Conversion of agricultural waste into biogas that is consumed in gas-fueled generator sets, for example, can help anchor community microgrids. These opportunities build off an already established tradition of utilizing biomass for traditional energy (e.g., burning wood or dung for cooking and as a source of heat) and well-established technological processes.
As discussed in the United Nations’ report, The State of the Biofuels Market: Regulatory, Trade, and Development Perspectives, the developing world remains a significant growth opportunity for biofuels. Biofuels used in off-grid cooking applications to industrial power generation continue to gain traction as key target opportunities for ethanol fuels, biodiesel, and emerging advanced biofuels.
Supply chains to support these opportunities have begun laying the early foundation for an emerging global bioeconomy centered on renewable biomass for economic activities, including commodity and food trade, the IT and automotive industries, and environmental technologies.
While the refocus of investment away from ground transportation applications to a wider range of opportunities will mean less biorefinery capacity built through 2020, these niche opportunities are expected to result in the development of specialized capacity expansion in spite of cheap and plentiful oil.