Cleantech Market Intelligence
United States, China Collaborate on Carbon Capture
In a previous blog, I outlined some of the recent efforts to reduce carbon emissions in the United States and China. Following that trend, earlier this month the United States and China signed eight partnership agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Of the eight agreements, four promote collaboration in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. As China alone consumes nearly half of the world’s coal and the United States consumes 11%, these agreements mark an important step in promoting international cooperation to combat climate change.
As Richard Martin noted in a previous blog post, the Chinese government has been looking at options to combat air pollution by curbing coal consumption for quite some time. Despite the need to reduce coal consumption overall, throwing the combined weight of the United States and China at developing CCS technology to mitigate the effects of coal combustion is a move in the right direction.
The majority of the CCS agreements are focused on regional projects that involve collaboration between research institutions in the United States and China. One agreement, between the University of Kentucky and China’s Sinopec Corporation, features a demonstration project that will capture, utilize, and store 1 million tons of CO2 annually from a coal-fired plant in Shandong, China. The project is projected to continue through 2017, and researchers hope to develop CCS technologies that can be used on a broader scale. The University of Kentucky, along with the Shanxi Coal International Energy Group and Air Products & Chemicals Inc., is also working on a coal-fired power plant able to capture 2 million tons of CO2 per year. Another of the efforts is an undertaking between the Huaneng Clean Energy Research Institute and Summit Power Group LLC to develop clean coal power generation technology. In the Shaanxi province, West Virginia University along with Yanchang Petroleum and Air Products and Chemicals will pursue an oxy-combustion coal technology project.
Developing CCS technology in a world where the two largest emitters of CO2 also have massive natural coal reserves seems like a good way to mitigate emissions problems. However, problems remain with the technology, including water intensity, high cost, and slow deployment rates. Although coal companies and other fossil fuel advocates charge that President Obama is waging a “war on coal,” the administration has made it clear that coal and natural gas will remain a prominent part of America’s energy future for years to come. The same remains true in China, where the 12th Five-Year Plan emphasizes clean technologies and energy efficiency, but realistically acknowledges that China’s vast coal reserves will continue to be tapped to facilitate growth and economic development.