Cleantech Market Intelligence
Utilities Respond to EV-Induced Grid Pressure
Going green in one way often creates new energy use – or carbon emissions – in other ways. When you opt out of paper mail in favor of email, you generate Internet data that must be processed and stored (which requires a data center, something that is heavy in both space and energy use). It’s also the case with electric vehicles (EVs); you might never insert a card at the pump again, but you’ll use more electricity (and see a spike in your energy bill). Likewise, with increased adoption of EVs, more generation will be required and distribution utilities will increasingly experience pressure on the electrical grid.
Recently, Itron and ClipperCreek announced the launch of their utility-connected charging station for EVs, the CS-40-SG2. Equipped with a revenue-grade submeter that communicates specific EV charging information to the utility, the charging station also includes ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 1.1 and cellular and Wi-Fi-enabled communications technologies that provide access to smart grid capabilities such as remote monitoring and demand response (DR).
Utilities that anticipate (or are already experiencing) increased EV adoption are eager to shift peak electricity use in order to maintain efficiency in generation resource planning and to better manage new peaks. This technology allows the utility to remotely monitor and control residential charging, as well as collect interval data that can help guide future planning and action. Similarly, a smart grid-enabled submeter allows the utility to implement DR and time-of-use rates to curb electricity use for charging.
Another problem associated with EV charging in heavy penetration areas is transformer overload. Associated with uncoordinated residential charging of EVs, this can cause both stress and congestion on the local distribution network. Extending the utility’s monitoring capability and control to the point of use can limit the impact of responding to grid stress to the point of use or the individual charger.
It goes (almost) without saying that for this technology to be effective, the utility must already have a basic smart grid infrastructure that allows for DR functionality and grid monitoring, as well as an understanding of current and future effects of increased EV penetration. Many utilities in the United States are updating their aging infrastructures to accommodate EVs and distributed generation. However, the small number of existing state and federal grants for EV supply equipment suggests a sluggishness that could be due to uncertainty as to the current effects and how to best manage residential EV charging. But as demand for EV charging resources grows, so will the need for state public utilities commissions and utilities to adapt. The ClipperCreek/Itron charging station will be the first of many tools developed to smooth this process.