Combined Heat and Power for Commercial Buildings

Fuel Cell, Engine, and Turbine Technologies for Cogeneration in Commercial, Institutional, and Municipal Buildings: Global Market Analysis and Forecasts

Commercial combined heat and power (comCHP) systems, which are small to medium distributed energy generation systems that produce electricity while also capturing heat that would otherwise be treated as waste, are garnering increased interest from policy makers, utilities, and building owners in a growing number of countries. Distributed generation installations have the advantages of going online more quickly than traditional large centralized power stations, reducing demand pressure on the electrical grid, and reducing inefficiencies that are common in centralized power generation, transmission, and distribution. Installations that use CHP technologies have the additional benefit of producing thermal energy that can be used as heat, converted to electricity, or converted to cooling when coupled with an adsorption chiller.

The technologies behind many comCHP products have been under development for more than a decade. Today, the market is beginning to gain momentum and an increasing number of companies are introducing increasingly standardized commercial products. Driven by concerns about grid reliability, meeting growing demand for electricity, increasing grid efficiency, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, governments around the world are also focused on increasing subsidies and other incentives for the adoption of comCHP systems and related building efficiency technologies.

This Pike Research report analyzes the global market potential for comCHP systems for a range of building applications – hospitals, universities, hotels, casinos, airports, etc. – using technologies including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, Stirling engines, and Organic Rankine Cycle. The study includes in-depth assessments of leading countries for the manufacture and adoption of comCHP systems, the technologies utilized in such systems, and the key industry players engaged in this market. Worldwide market forecasts, segmented by region, are provided through 2022 for system shipments, installed capacity, average installation capacity size, and revenue.

Key Questions Addressed:
  • What is the size of the global market opportunity for commercial CHP systems?
  • Which countries offer the most attractive opportunities for comCHP?
  • What is the addressable market, in terms of commercial and institutional building stock, in key countries – and how will this grow?
  • How will technology improvements, modularization, and standardization influence average installation size across key regions over the next decade?
  • What business models are driving comCHP adoption across small commercial, large commercial, institutional, and municipal applications?
  • What are the key drivers for comCHP adoption at the building owner, utility, and government levels?
Who needs this report?
  • CHP technology vendors and integrators
  • Fuel cell companies
  • Natural gas companies
  • Renewable biogas producers
  • Utilities
  • Building owners and managers
  • Corporate and institutional energy managers
  • Energy service companies
  • Government agencies
  • Investor community

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1   Overview

1.2   Market Forecast

2. Market Issues

2.1   Introduction to CHP

2.1.1     CHP as a DG Technology

2.1.2     Why CHP?

2.2   Defining the comCHP Market

2.2.1     comCHP Benefits

2.2.2     comCHP Application Groups

2.3   comCHP Market Drivers

2.3.1     Energy Security

2.3.1.1     Security against Blackouts

2.3.1.2     Security against Price Volatility

2.3.2     Energy Supply Diversification

2.3.3     Volatility in the Spark Spread

2.3.3.1     Specific Cost Considerations

2.3.3.2     Natural Gas Prices

2.3.4     Mitigating Building or Facility Operating Costs

2.3.4.1     Avoided Costs

2.3.4.2     Staff Reduction via Outsourcing

2.3.4.3     Added Tenant Service/Rent

2.3.5     Emissions and Emissions Savings

2.3.6     Tariff Issues

2.3.7     Policies and Incentives

2.3.7.1     Financial Incentives

2.3.7.1.1.             Feed-in Tariffs

2.3.7.1.2.             Renewable Energy Credits

2.3.7.2     Regulations for Utilities

2.3.7.2.1.             Renewable Portfolio Standards

2.3.7.2.2.             Energy Efficiency Directives

2.3.7.3     Emissions Regulations

2.3.7.4     Research and Development Subsidies

2.3.7.5     Adoption Subsidies

2.3.8     Thermal versus Electrical Output in comCHP

2.3.9     Commercialization Programs

2.4   Market Barriers

2.4.1     Utilities

2.4.2     CHP Costs

2.4.2.1     Installed Cost

2.4.2.2     CAPEX

2.4.2.3     Operation and Maintenance Cost

2.4.2.4     Total Cost of Ownership

2.4.3     Regulations

2.4.3.1     Permitting and Air Quality

2.4.3.2     Environmental Regulations

2.4.3.3     Municipal Regulations

2.4.4     Access to Fuel Sources

2.4.5     Market Immaturity

2.4.5.1     Public Awareness and Acceptance

2.4.5.2     Product Availability

2.4.5.3     Durability and Maintenance

2.4.5.4     Support and Repair Infrastructure

3. Country Profiles

3.1   Introduction

3.2   United States

3.2.1     Overview

3.2.2     Policy Outlook

3.2.3     Overview of Commercial Building Stock

3.3   Germany

3.3.1     Overview

3.3.2     Policy Outlook

3.3.3     Overview of Commercial Building Stock

3.4   United Kingdom

3.5   Denmark

3.6   Russia

3.7   China

3.7.1     Overview

3.7.2     Policy Outlook

3.7.3     Overview of Commercial Building Stock

3.8   Japan

3.8.1     South Korea

4. Technology Issues

4.1   CHP Technical Overview

4.1.1     CHP Efficiency

4.1.1.1     Total CHP Efficiency

4.1.1.2     Effective Electrical Efficiency

4.1.1.3     Power-to-Heat Ratio

4.1.2     CHP Integration

4.1.2.1     Building Integration

4.1.2.2     Grid Interconnection

4.2   CHP Components

4.2.1     Prime mover

4.2.2     Heat Recovery Device

4.2.3     Utility Interface

4.2.4     Controls

4.2.5     Optional Components

4.3   Mechanical Systems

4.3.1     Internal Combustion Engines

4.3.2     Steam and Gas Turbines

4.3.2.1     Combined Cycle Gas Turbines

4.3.2.2     Microturbines

4.3.3     Emerging Mechanical Technologies

4.3.3.1     Reciprocating and Stirling Engines

4.3.3.2     Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)

4.4   Fuel Cells

4.4.1     Differences among Fuel Cells

4.4.2     Cost of Fuel Cell Systems

4.4.3     Fuel Cells for comCHP

4.5   Feedstocks

4.5.1     Natural Gas

4.5.2     Opportunity Fuels

4.6   Efficiencies and Emissions Profiles

4.7   Complementary Technologies

4.7.1     Chillers

4.7.2     Thermoelectric Generators

4.8   comCHP Innovation

4.8.1     Solar Cogeneration

4.8.2     Smart Energy Building Systems

5. Key Industry Players

5.1   2G-CENERGY Power Systems Technologies, Inc.

5.2   Ameresco, Inc.

5.3   Capstone Turbine Corporation

5.4   Caterpillar, Inc.

5.5   Cogenra Solar

5.6   Cummins Power Generation

5.7   Dresser-Rand

5.8   ESS

5.9   FlexEnergy, Inc.

5.10  FuelCell Energy

5.11  Fuji Electric

5.12  GE Energy

5.13  Honeywell International

5.14  IntelliGen Power

5.15  Leva Energy

5.16  MTU Onsite Energy

5.17  MWM, GmbH

5.18  Tecogen, Inc.

5.19  UTC Power

5.20  Wärtsilä

6. Market Forecasts

6.1   Methodology

6.2   Key Flex Points

6.3   Global Building Stock

6.4   Regional Markets

6.4.1     North America

6.4.2     Europe

6.4.3     Asia Pacific

6.5   Market Forecasts by Region

6.5.1     Installed Capacity

6.5.2     System Installments

6.5.3     Average Installation Size

6.6   Market Forecasts by Application Group

6.6.1     Installed Capacity

6.6.2     Growth Rates

6.7   Market Value Forecasts

6.7.1     By Region

6.7.2     By Application Group

7. Company Directory
8. Acronym and Abbreviation List
9. Table of Content
10. Table of Charts and Figures
11. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • comCHP Installed Capacity by Region, World Markets:  2012-2022
  • Total Primary Energy Demand, World Markets: 1990-2030
  • Spot Price of Natural Gas by Market, World Markets: 2001-2010
  • CO2 Emissions with Electricity and Heat Allocated, Consumer Sector: 2008
  • Share of Installed comCHP Capacity by Application Group, United States: 2011
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, United States: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, Germany: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, China: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, Asia Pacific: 2012-2022
  • comCHP System Installments by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Average comCHP Installation Size by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Installed comCHP Capacity by Application Group, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Installed comCHP Capacity Compound Annual Growth Rates by Region and Application Group, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • comCHP Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • comCHP Revenue by Application Group, World Markets: 2012-2022

List of Tables

  • comCHP Installed Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • comCHP Application Groups
  • comCHP Applications by Size
  • Estimated Losses Per Hour of Grid Failure
  • State RPS Targets that Include CHP or Waste Heat as Eligible Resource
  • Total Primary Energy Demand, World Markets: 1990-2030
  • Spot Price of Natural Gas by Market, World Markets: 2001-2010
  • CO2 Emissions with Electricity and Heat Allocated, Consumer Sector: 2008
  • Banding System for CHP and Non-CHP Equivalents
  • Share of Installed comCHP Capacity by Application Group, United States: 2011
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, United States: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, Germany: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, China: 2012-2022
  • Summary of CHP Technologies
  • Prime Mover Technology Characteristics
  • Summary of Fuel Cell Types and Operating Characteristics
  • Summary of Efficiencies and Emissions Profiles by Technology
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Commercial Building Stock by Type, Asia Pacific: 2012-2022
  • comCHP Installed Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • comCHP System Installments by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Average comCHP Installation Size by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Installed comCHP Capacity by Application Group, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Installed comCHP Capacity Compound Annual Growth Rates by Region and Application Group, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • comCHP Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • comCHP Revenue by Application Group, World Markets: 2012-2022

{"userID":"","pageName":"Combined Heat and Power for Commercial Buildings","path":"\/research\/combined-heat-and-power-for-commercial-buildings","date":"4\/23\/2014"}