Renewable Energy for Military Applications

Solar, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrokinetic Energy, Biofuels and Synfuels, Fuel Cells, Microgrids, Smart Meters, and Energy Efficiency: U.S. Market Analysis and Forecasts

As the largest single consumer of energy in the world, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is one of the most important drivers for the cleantech market today. The DOD has developed a comprehensive strategy to reduce energy consumption, improve battlefield effectiveness, increase energy security, and reduce costs. The Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps are each implementing detailed plans to achieve ambitious renewable energy and energy efficiency targets that, in most cases, are likely to be achieved by 2025, including 3 gigawatts (GW) of renewable power generation at military facilities, primarily via third-party financing.

Spanning from research and development to base and battlefield deployment, military applications of clean technologies are growing, but there are considerable operational and political challenges that, as in cleantech markets in civilian markets, pose threats to fully realizing these opportunities. Pike Research expects that the expenditures on renewable energy by the Department of Defense will reach $1.8 billion by 2025, growing from $163 million in 2013.

This Pike Research report examines the current status and future direction of renewable energy technology at military bases and other DOD facilities. The near-term and long-term priorities for DOD research and development are examined, along with key directives, primary drivers, and renewable energy programs for each branch of the military. The report also analyzes major military renewable energy programs by technology, including solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, waste-to-energy, hydrokinetic and ocean energy, and fuel cells. Profiles of major defense contractors and other providers of renewable energy technology to the DOD are included as well. The report also provides forecasts of DOD expenditures on renewable energy by application and installed renewable capacity by military branch, through 2025.

Key Questions Addressed:
  • What is the current status and direction of advancement of renewable energy technology for the DOD?
  • What are the expected near-term and long-term trends for DOD development and incorporation of renewable energy and related clean energy technologies?
  • What are the key DOD energy consumption and renewable energy deployment initiatives for facilities and infrastructure?
  • How will the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force meet their renewable energy goals?
  • What will be the annual expenditures for renewable energy purchases for the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force?
  • What are the key renewable energy initiatives to support soldier power and forward operating bases?
  • Who are the key players that are competing for a share of the tens of billions of dollars available from DOD in the next decade?
Who needs this report?
  • Defense contractors
  • Cleantech technology manufacturers, suppliers, installers, and vendors
  • Renewable energy project developers
  • Utility and energy industries
  • Government agencies and policy makers
  • Investor community and financial institutions
  • Technology researchers

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1   Energy and National Security

1.2   Current Major Renewable Energy Initiatives

1.3   Large-scale RE Installations at DOD Facilities

1.4   Tactical Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy for Mobility

1.5   DOD and U.S. Cleantech Market at Transition Point

2. Major Renewable Energy Markets & Current Initiatives

2.1   Overview of Military Renewable Energy Applications to Date

2.2   Renewable Energy Projects for DOD Facilities and Installations to Date

2.3   Large-scale RE Installations at DOD Facilities

2.4   Major Renewable Electricity Markets by Technology

2.4.1     Solar Energy

2.4.1.1     Large-scale Solar PV Facilities on DOD Property

2.4.1.1.1.             Historic and Current Cost Trends of Solar PV on DOD Property

2.4.1.2     Solar Thermal Heating and Solar Hot Water

2.4.1.3     Concentrating Solar Thermal Electric

2.4.1.4     Flexible Solar Technologies

2.4.1.5     Space-Based Solar Power

2.4.2     Wind Energy

2.4.2.1     Wind Energy Trends in DOD Markets

2.4.2.2     Cost

2.4.2.2.1.             Cost per Kilowatt-hour

2.4.2.2.2.             Equipment Costs

2.4.2.3     Market Size

2.4.2.4     Wind Turbine Conflicts with Military Radar

2.4.3     Biomass Energy

2.4.4     Geothermal Energy

2.4.4.1     Hydrocarbon Production Wells

2.4.4.2     Ground Source Geothermal Heat Pumps

2.4.5     Waste-to-Energy

2.4.5.1     Leading Companies Currently Working with DOD on WTE

2.4.5.2     Mobile W2E

2.4.6     Military Microgrids

2.4.6.1     DOD Microgrid Initiatives

2.4.6.1.1.             Overview

2.4.6.1.2.             Military Energy Surety Microgrid System

2.4.6.1.3.             Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security

2.4.6.2     Case Study: Twentynine Palms Marine Base

2.4.7     Hydrokinetic, Tidal, and Wave Energy

2.4.8     Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

2.4.9     Hydropower

2.4.10   Fuel Cells

2.4.10.1   Fuel Cell Potential for Unmanned Air and Ground Vehicles

2.4.10.2   Unmanned Ground Vehicles

2.4.11   Smart Metering

2.5   Renewable Energy Contracting Vehicles

2.5.1     Enhanced Use Lease

2.5.2     Power Purchase Agreements/Federal Acquisition Regulation

2.6   Energy Conservation

2.6.1     Energy Conservation for Tactical Operations

2.6.2     Energy Efficiency Contracting Vehicles

2.6.2.1     Energy Savings Performance Contracts

2.6.2.2     Utility Savings Contracts

2.6.3     DOD and DOE Federal Energy Management Program Interaction

2.6.4     Defense Energy Conservation Investment Program

2.6.5     Total DOD Energy Conservation Market

2.7   Transportation Biofuels and Synthetic Fuels

2.7.1     Background

2.7.2     Total Fuel by Type

2.7.3     DOD Fuel and Energy Consumption by Application: Peacetime versus Contingency Operation

2.8   Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel

2.9   Current U.S. Government Biofuels Initiatives with Impact on the DOD

2.9.1     Defense Energy Support Center

2.9.1.1     DESC Support of Alternative Fuels

2.9.2     DARPA-Sponsored Research on Biofuels for the Military

2.9.2.1     The DARPA Phase O BioFuels Program

2.9.2.2     DARPA Phase I and II Biofuels Program (BioFuels: Alternative Feedstocks Program)

2.9.2.2.1.             Algal Biofuel Commercial Viability

2.10  Aircraft

2.10.1   Synthetic Fuel

2.10.2   Alternative Use of JP-8

2.11  Land Vehicles

2.11.1   Tactical Vehicles, Trucks, and Tanks

2.11.2   Joint Light Tactical Vehicles

2.11.3   Non-Tactical Vehicles

2.12  Marine Vessels

2.12.1.1   Green Strike Group

3. Market Drivers by Major Military Branches

3.1   DOD Energy Consumption

3.2   DOD Fuel Consumption

3.3   Net-Zero Initiative

3.3.1     Net-Zero Applications to Tactical Operations

3.4   Renewable Energy Focus and Directives by Military Branch      46

3.5   Army

3.5.1     Directives

3.5.2     Current Renewable Energy Programs

3.5.3     U.S. Army Renewable Energy Targets

3.6   Air Force

3.6.1     Directives

3.6.2     Current Renewable Energy Programs

3.6.3     Air Force RE Targets

3.7   Navy/Marines

3.7.1     Directives

3.7.2     Current Renewable Programs

3.7.3     Navy/Marine Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Targets

3.8   Alternative Fuels Development

3.8.1     U.S. Biofuels Production from Algae Feedstocks

4. Key Industry Players

4.1   Select Major Defense Contractors

4.1.1     BAE Systems, Inc.

4.1.1.1     Marine Energy Conversion

4.1.1.2     Hybrid-Electric and Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems

4.1.2     Boeing Co.

4.1.2.1     Biofuels

4.1.2.2     Solar Cell Technology

4.1.3     Booz Allen Hamilton

4.1.3.1     Alternative Energy and Energy Efficiency Solutions

4.1.3.2     Renewable Energy Projects on DOD Property

4.1.4     General Dynamics Corp.

4.1.4.1     Fuel Cell Technology

4.1.4.2     Hybrid-Electric Technology

4.1.5     General Electric Company

4.1.5.1     Microgrid Technology Development

4.1.5.2     Wind

4.1.6     ITT Exelis

4.1.6.1     Geothermal Energy Products

4.1.7     KBR Inc.

4.1.7.1     Biomass/Biofuels/Waste to Energy

4.1.8     L-3 Communications

4.1.8.1     Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems

4.1.9     Lockheed Martin Corp.

4.1.9.1     Solar Energy

4.1.9.2     Marine & Hydrokinetic Energy

4.1.9.3     Smart Grid

4.1.10   Northrop Grumman Corp.

4.1.10.1   Hybrid-Electric Propulsion

4.1.11   Science Applications International Corp.

4.1.11.1   Algae to Biofuels, Alternative Fuels

4.1.11.2   Solar Technologies

4.1.11.3   Marine Energy and Wind Technologies

4.2   Other Select Military/Defense Contractors with a Strong Focus on Renewable Energy

4.2.1     ACCIONA Solar Power, Inc.

4.2.2     Bechtel Corporation

4.2.3     Clark Energy Group

4.2.4     General Atomics

4.2.4.1     Renewable Energy Power Conversion

4.2.4.2     Biofuels from Algae

4.2.5     Honeywell International

4.2.6     Oshkosh Defense

4.2.6.1     ProPulse Hybrid Diesel-Electric Drive

4.2.6.2     Renewable Energy Mission Module

4.2.7     Protonex Technology Corporation

4.2.8     SkyBuilt Power

4.3   Solar Companies with DOD Experience

4.3.1     SolarCity

4.3.2     SunPower

5. Market Forecasts

5.1   DOD Expenditures by Market Application

5.2   Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Military Branch

5.3   Electricity Expenditures via Renewable Electricity PPAs / EUL Contracts

6. Company Directory
7. Acronym and Abbreviation List
8. Table of Contents
9. Table of Charts and Figures
10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • Total DOD Direct Annual Expenditures by Market Application: 2013-2025
  • Snapshot of Cost per Gallon of Algae versus Transportation Fuels
  • Price Parity Experience Curve for Algae-based Biofuels, United States: 2010-2020
  • Algae Biofuels Production, North America: 2010-2020
  • Annual and Cumulative Renewable Energy Installed Capacity, All Military Branches by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Breakdown of Army Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Breakdown of Navy Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Breakdown of Air Force Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Annual Expenditures from PPAs, Combined Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force Renewable Energy Facility Installations by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Average Military PPA Rates, Leading Renewable Energy Technologies: 2013-2042
  • Total DOD Direct Expenditures for Fuel Cells for Soldier Power-related Technologies: 2010-2030
  • Army, Navy, Air Force Cumulative Renewable Energy Installed Capacity: 2013-2025
  • Annual and Cumulative Army Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Annual and Cumulative Navy Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Annual and Cumulative Air Force Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Map of Potential DOD Large-scale Renewable Energy Opportunities
  • Potential Economically Feasible Installed Capacity for Solar Technology at Select U.S. Military Bases
  • Current Level and Proportional Army Investment in Research of Essential Microgrid Components
  • Current Smart Metering Initiatives of DOD Facilities and Buildings
  • DOD Fuel Consumption by Type (0% indicates less than 1%)
  • DOD Energy Consumption by Application, Peacetime versus Contingency Operations
  • DOD Petroleum Use by Service
  • DOD Proportion of Total U.S. Government Fuel Consumption
  • Mandated Changes in Energy Use for the Department of Defense, Percentage Change,  2000-2030
  • U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Army Fuel and Energy Utilization

List of Tables

  • Number of DOD Renewable Energy Initiatives by Type: 2010
  • Operational Energy Strategies, United States Department of Defense: 2011
  • Defense Energy Programs and Organizations, United States
  • Key Industry Investments in Algae Biofuels, World Markets with DOD implications
  • Military Energy Goals, United States
  • AESIS Summary of Energy Security Goals and Objectives
  • Total DOD Direct Annual Expenditures by Market Application: 2013-2025
  • Annual Army Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Annual Navy Renewable Energy  Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Annual Air Force Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Annual Army, Navy, and Air Force Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Cumulative  Army, Navy, and Air Force Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology : 2013-2025
  • Cumulative Army, Navy, and Air Force Renewable Energy Installed Capacity: 2013-2025
  • Annual Expenditures on Renewable Energy PPAs, Combined Army, Navy (Including Marines), Air Force, by Technology: 2013-2025
  • Estimated PPA Price Ranges for Solar Power, 2013-2042
  • Estimated PPA Price Ranges for Wind Power: 2013-2042
  • Estimated PPA Price Ranges for Biomass Power: 2013-2042
  • Estimated PPA Price Ranges for Geothermal Power: 2013-2042
  • Estimated PPA Price Ranges for Other Sources of Renewable Energy: 2013-2042
  • Total DOD Direct Expenditures for Fuel Cells for Soldier Power-Related Technologies:  2010-2030

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