Stop-Start Vehicles

Micro Hybrid Technologies, Lead-Acid Batteries, Li-ion Batteries,
and Ultracapacitors: Market Analysis and Forecasts

The ability of a vehicle to automatically stop its engine when stationary and then fire it up again when it is time to move can save significant quantities of fuel and reduce vehicle emissions in traffic jams. To keep drivers happy with a stop-start vehicle’s (SSV’s) performance, the process must be seamless, and it must not have any measurable effect on performance. The latest systems are starting to adopt some of the features that were first developed for full hybrid vehicles. The challenge is to get the most efficiency benefits from the smallest cost increment.

Growth in light duty SSV sales during the next decade will be predominately in the three major market regions of North America, Western Europe, and Asia Pacific, primarily because these regions are the most aggressive in their implementation of fuel economy and emissions regulations. Stop-start systems will help to roll out other electrification features that will combine with engine downsizing and other enhancements to increase efficiency without large-scale adoption of full hybrid or plug-in electric capability. Navigant Research forecasts that total global sales for light duty SSVs will exceed 55 million by 2022, accounting for 54.3% of total vehicle sales.

This Navigant Research report analyzes the opportunities and challenges present in the global market for light duty SSVs, also known as micro hybrids, idle stop vehicles, and a variety of names branded by automakers. The study provides an examination of stop-start component systems, including the technologies used for energy storage. Global forecasts for light duty SSV, lead-acid battery, lithium ion (Li-ion) battery, and ultracapacitor sales by world region extend through 2022. The report also provides a detailed analysis of the benefits, drivers, and market barriers for SSVs and profiles key market players.

Key Questions Addressed:
  • What are the different technologies used for energy storage in stop-start vehicles (SSVs)?
  • What new developments in SSV technology can be expected in the future?
  • How do SSVs differ from micro hybrid and mild hybrid vehicles?
  • How quickly will the light duty SSV market grow and how will it compare to the electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) markets?
  • Who are the key players in the SSV market?
  • Why has stop-start technology availability to date been concentrated in Europe?
  • What are the typical savings in emissions and fuel that fleet managers can expect?
Who needs this report?
  • Vehicle manufacturers
  • Vehicle component suppliers
  • Battery manufacturers
  • Ultracapacitor manufacturers
  • Fleet managers
  • Government agencies
  • Investor community

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1  Stop-Start Technology

1.2  Key Market Drivers

1.3  Technology Issues

1.4  Forecast Highlights

2. Market Issues

2.1  Introduction

2.2  Stop-Start Market Background

2.3  Benefits of Stop-Start Technology

2.4  Many Names for Stop-Start Technology

2.5  The State of the Stop-Start Market

2.5.1   The Stop-Start Market in North America

2.5.2   The Stop-Start Market in Europe

2.5.3   The Stop-Start Market in Asia Pacific

2.6  OEM Costs for Stop-Start Technology

2.7  Consumer Price for Stop-Start Technology

2.8  Competition with Hybrids

2.9  Government Emissions Regulations

2.9.1   Government Emissions Regulations in North America

2.9.2   Government Emissions Regulations in Europe

2.9.3   Government Emissions Regulations in Asia Pacific

2.10   Corporate Fleets Emissions Reductions

2.11   The Effect of Fuel Cost

2.12   The Bigger Picture of Vehicle Electrification

3. Technology Issues

3.1  Introduction

3.2  Stop-Start Subsystem

3.2.1   Stop-Start Integration Packages

3.2.1.1    Belt Alternator Starter

3.2.1.2    Flywheel Alternator Starter

3.2.1.3    Tandem Solenoid

3.3  Stop-Start Energy Storage

3.3.1   EFB Technology

3.3.2   VRLA Technology

3.3.2.1  AGM VRLA Technology

3.3.2.2  Sulfation

3.3.3   Lead-Carbon Ultra Batteries

3.3.4   Li-ion Batteries

3.3.5   Ultracapacitors

3.4  Transmission Considerations for Stop-Start Technology

3.5  Other Onboard Electric Systems and 48V Technology

3.6  Future Developments

4. Key Industry Players

4.1  Stop-Start Energy Storage Providers

4.1.1   A123 Systems

4.1.2   Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium

4.1.3   Axion Power

4.1.4   Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

4.1.5   East Penn Manufacturing

4.1.6   Exide Technologies

4.1.7   GS Yuasa

4.1.8   Ioxus

4.1.9   Johnson Controls

4.1.10   Leyden Energy

4.1.11   Maxwell Technologies

4.1.12   PowerGenix

4.1.13   Primearth EV Energy

4.2  Stop-Start Subsystem Suppliers

4.2.1   BorgWarner

4.2.2   Bosch

4.2.3   Continental

4.2.4   Controlled Power Technologies

4.2.5   Delphi Automotive

4.2.6   Denso

4.2.7   GETRAG

4.2.8   Hella

4.2.9   Letrika

4.2.10   Magna Steyr

4.2.11   Ricardo

4.2.12   Schaeffler

4.2.13   Valeo

4.2.14   ZF Freidrichshafen

4.3  Auto Manufacturers with Stop-Start Functionality

4.3.1   Audi

4.3.2   BMW

4.3.3   Chrysler

4.3.4   Daimler

4.3.5   Fiat

4.3.6   Ford

4.3.7   General Motors

4.3.8   Honda

4.3.9   Hyundai/Kia

4.3.10   Jaguar Land Rover

4.3.11   Mazda

4.3.12   Nissan

4.3.13   PSA Peugeot Citroën

4.3.14   Renault

4.3.15   Toyota

4.3.16   Volkswagen

4.3.17   Volvo

5. Market Forecasts

5.1  Introduction

5.2  Global Vehicle Forecast: 2013-2022

5.3  Stop-Start Vehicle Sales

5.3.1   SSV Sales in North America

5.3.2   SSV Sales in Western Europe

5.3.3   SSV Sales in Asia Pacific

5.3.4   SSVs in Other Regions

5.4  Energy Storage Revenue

5.4.1   SSVs with Lead-Acid Batteries

5.4.2   SSVs with Li-ion Batteries

5.4.3   SSVs with Ultracapacitors

5.4.4   Overall Revenue Picture

5.5  Conclusions and Recommendations

6. Company Directory
7. Acronym and Abbreviation List
8. Table of Contents
9. Table of Charts and Figures
10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • Annual Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Vehicle and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Light Duty Vehicle Sales Penetration by Drivetrain, North America: 2018
  • Stop-Start Vehicle Share of Total Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2018
  • Annual Sales of Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicles with Lead-Acid Batteries by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Lead-Acid Battery Revenue for Stop-Start Vehicles by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Sales of Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicles with Li-ion Batteries by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Li-ion Battery Revenue for Stop-Start Vehicles by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Sales of Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicles with Ultracapacitors by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Ultracapacitors Revenue for Stop-Start Vehicles by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Overall Energy Storage Revenue for Stop-Start Vehicles by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Mazda’s i-stop Technology
  • Global CO2 Emissions Reduction Requirements: 2003-2030
  • European Auto Manufacturer Emissions Reduction Targets: 2006 vs. 2012
  • New EU Vehicle CO2 Emissions: 1995-2012
  • Sales of Low CO2 Emissions Vehicles, EU: 1995-2012
  • Belt Alternator Stop-Start System
  • Absorbed Glass Mat Duty Cycles
  • Battery Technology Cycle Life
  • Lead-Carbon Battery Diagram

List of Tables

  • Automaker Stop-Start Feature Summary
  • Stop-Start Vehicle and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Price Comparison, United Kingdom: 2012-2013
  • Cost of Fuel Comparison, Internal Combustion Engine, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Stop-Start Vehicles: 2012
  • Stop-Start Systems by Manufacturer, Europe, United States, and Asia Pacific: 2014 Model Year
  • Supplier Stop-Start Systems Summary: 2013
  • Annual Total Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Growth in Total Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2014-2022
  • Annual Total Hybrid Electric Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Growth in Total Hybrid Electric Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2014-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Growth in Total Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2014-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Vehicle Sales as a Percentage of Total Light Duty Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Total Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Drivetrain and Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Total Light Duty Vehicle Percentage Sales by Drivetrain and Region, World Markets 2013-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Lead-Acid Battery Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Growth in Total Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Lead-Acid Battery Sales by Region, World Markets: 2014-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Lead-Acid Battery Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Li-ion Battery Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Growth in Total Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Li-ion Battery Sales by Region, World Markets: 2014-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicle Li-ion Battery Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicles with Ultracapacitors Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Growth in Stop-Start Light Duty Vehicles with Ultracapacitors Sales by Region, World Markets: 2014-2022
  • Annual Ultracapacitors Revenue from Stop-Start Vehicles by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Total Stop-Start Energy Storage Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Total Stop-Start Energy Storage Revenue Breakdown by Technology and Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Total Stop-Start Energy Storage Revenue Breakdown by Technology, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Annual Total Stop-Start Energy Storage Percentage Breakdown by Technology, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • U.S. EPA CAFE Regulations Requirements: 2010-2016

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