Vehicle Grid Integration

VGI Applications for Demand Response, Frequency Regulation, Microgrids, Virtual Power Plants, and Renewable Energy Integration

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) available today can help grid operators manage the grid—though few in use do. This is not too much of a problem now, but as more PEVs populate roads, utilities are likely to become increasingly concerned with managing and making use of these mobile assets. Today’s PEVs represent a significant increase in electricity demand that, if unmanaged, could cause problems with distribution-level transformers and could drastically increase demand during peak hours when PEV owners return from work and plug in their vehicles. The effect would force utilities to make upgrades to distribution networks that would likely be passed on in the form of higher rates to consumers.

Conversely, PEVs also represent an increase in load that could be used to capture renewable electricity generation and help balance generation with demand, theoretically making electricity marginally cheaper and cleaner. Vehicle grid integration (VGI) technologies, which have been in development since before the Volt and LEAF were first sold in the Unites States, are designed to accomplish this purpose. Now that the market for PEVs has begun to firm with global sales surpassing 320,000 in 2014, pilots testing VGI technologies are emerging with greater frequency. According to Navigant Research, PEVs participating in VGI services are expected to provide nearly 4.2 GW of power to grids globally by 2024 under an aggressive scenario.

This Navigant Research report analyzes the market opportunity for VGI technologies to be used to support grid reliability and stability. The study considers various policy factors associated with the growth of VGI, as well as significant market drivers and barriers. Global market forecasts for V2X-enabled PEVs and VGI capacity and revenue, segmented by region, category, and scenario, extend through 2024. The report also examines the major VGI technologies and case studies and profiles key market participants.

Key Questions Addressed:
  • What challenges may hinder the widespread commercialization of vehicle grid integration (VGI) technologies?
  • Which regulatory structures and grid services markets are best suited for VGI technologies?
  • Which regional markets are the best near-term opportunities and which are likely long-term opportunities?
  • What key factors influence VGI opportunities?
  • What costs are associated with both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) VGI systems?
  • How will the market for VGI technologies evolve to allow individually owned plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to participate?
Who needs this report?
  • Automotive manufacturers and suppliers
  • Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) manufacturers
  • Energy service companies
  • Smart grid software companies
  • Grid operators and utilities
  • Corporate and government fleets
  • Government agencies
  • Investor community

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Market Evolution

1.3  Market Forecasts

2. Market Issues     

2.1  Definition and Scope

2.2  Introduction

2.3  VGI Markets

2.3.1   Regulated versus Deregulated Markets

2.3.2   Energy Storage

2.3.3   Ancillary Services

   2.3.3.1  Frequency Regulation

   2.3.3.2  Pay-for-Performance

2.3.4   DR

2.3.5   Virtual Power Plants and Microgrids

2.4  Market Barriers

2.5  Market Drivers

2.5.1   Wind

2.5.2   Solar

2.6  Market Participants

2.6.1   Automakers

2.6.2   Fleets

   2.6.2.1  Military Fleets

   2.6.2.2  Utility, Cable, and Communications Service Fleets

   2.6.2.3  Other Fleets

2.6.3   Utilities

2.6.4   Aggregators

2.6.5   Employers

2.7  Regional Markets

2.7.1   North America

2.7.2   Europe

2.7.3   Asia Pacific

   2.7.3.1  Japan

   2.7.3.2  South Korea

   2.7.3.3  India

   2.7.3.4  China

2.8  Case Studies

2.8.1   BMW i ChargeForward

2.8.2   Clinton Global Initiative School Bus Project

2.8.3   Grid on Wheels

2.8.4   U.S. DOD V2G Demonstrations

2.8.5   SPIDERS

2.8.6   MeRegio Mobil

2.8.7   Zem2All Malaga

2.8.8   Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project

2.8.9   EDISON Project

2.8.10  Fiat-Chrysler V2G Demonstrations

3. Technology Issues

3.1  Technologies

3.2  PEVs

3.2.1   LD PEVs

3.2.2   MHD PEVs

3.3  Communications

3.3.1   Smart Charging Management Systems

3.3.2   Utility Commands

3.3.3   Data Analytics

3.4  Bidirectional Power Delivery

3.4.1   AC V2G

3.4.2   DC V2G

3.4.3   Impact on Vehicle Batteries

3.4.4   Utility Upgrades

3.5  Standards

4. Key Industry Players

4.1  Introduction

4.2  Vehicle Technologies

4.2.1   AC Propulsion

4.2.2   AutoPort

4.2.3   BMW

4.2.4   Daimler

4.2.5   EVI

4.2.6   EVAOS

4.2.7   Fiat-Chrysler

4.2.8   Ford

4.2.9   GM

4.2.10  Honda

4.2.11  LUXGEN Motor

4.2.12  Mitsubishi Motors

4.2.13  Nissan

4.2.14  Phoenix Motorcars

4.2.15  REV Technologies

4.2.16  Smith Electric Vehicles

4.2.17  VIA Motors

4.3  Infrastructure Technologies

4.3.1   AeroVironment

4.3.2   Coritech Services

4.3.3   DENSO

4.3.4   EMotorWerks

4.3.5   Hitachi

4.3.6   Ideal Power

4.3.7   National Renewable Energy Laboratory

4.3.8   NextEnergy

4.3.9   Nichicon

4.3.10  Princeton Power

4.4  Smart Grid Communications

4.4.1   Akuacom

4.4.2   AutoGrid

4.4.3   CrossChasm

4.4.4   EVGrid

4.4.5   Greenlots

4.4.6   Kisensum

4.4.7   LBNL

4.4.8   PNNL

4.5  Energy Providers

4.5.1   CAISO

4.5.2   Con Edison

4.5.3   NRG Energy

4.5.4   PG&E

4.5.5   PJM

4.5.6   SCE

4.5.7   University of Delaware

4.5.8   U.S. DOD

4.6  Other Industry Participants

5. Market Forecasts 

5.1  Forecast Methodology

5.2  Vehicles

5.3  VGI Capacity

5.3.1   V1G Capacity

5.3.2   V2G Capacity

5.4  Revenue Forecasts

5.4.1   Equipment Installations

   5.4.1.1  Infrastructure Installations

   5.4.1.2  Vehicle Installations

5.4.2   Grid Services

5.5  Conclusions and Recommendations

6. Company Directory
7. Acronym and Abbreviation List
8. Table of Contents
9. Table of Charts and Figures
10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • VGI Installed Capacity by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEV Sales by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEV Sales by Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • VGI Capacity by Segment, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • VGI Capacity as Percentage of Total PEV Load by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V1G Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Installed Capacity by Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Installed Capacity by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X System Installation Revenue by Segment, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X System Installation Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X Vehicle Equipment Installation Revenue by Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X Vehicle Equipment Installation Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • VGI Grid Services Revenue by Segment, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • VGI Grid Services Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEVs in Use by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEV Sales by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEVs in Use by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Capacity Additions by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Capacity Additions by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Installed Capacity by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Grid Services Revenue by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X System Installation Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • LA AFB Bid, Charging Instruction, and Electricity Flow Chart
  • U.S. States with Deregulated Electricity Markets
  • The European Grid’s Five Synchronous Areas

List of Tables

  • Comparison of Battery Utility for Grid Services
  • Other Industry Participants
  • LD PEVs in Use by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Fleet LD PEVs in Use by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Fleet MHD PEVs in Use by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Total EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Cumulative EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Total Workplace EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Cumulative Workplace EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Total Residential EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Cumulative Residential EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEV Sales by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEVs in Use by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEV Sales by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X-Enabled PEVs in Use by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • PEV Load by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • VGI Installed Capacity by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • VGI Installed Capacity by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Capacity Additions by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Installed Capacity by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Capacity Additions by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Installed Capacity by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V1G Installed Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V1G Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Commercial Sector V1G Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Commercial Sector V1G Installed Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Residential V1G Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Residential V1G Installed Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Dynamic V1G Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • Dynamic V1G Installed Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X System Installation Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X System Installation Revenue by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X Infrastructure Installation Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X Infrastructure Installation Revenue by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X Vehicle Equipment Installation Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2X Vehicle Equipment Installation Revenue by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Grid Services Revenue by Region, Aggressive Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V2G Grid Services Revenue by Region, Base Scenario, World Markets: 2015-2024
  • V1G Grid Services Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2015-2024

Report Details

  • Pages: 91
  • Tables, Charts,
    Figures:
    64
  • Release Date: 1Q 2015
  • Release File(s): PDF* and Excel *Indicates primary report file.

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