Vehicle to Building Technologies

Energy Storage, Backup Power, Peak Shaving, and Building Operations Cost Reductions: Market Analysis and Forecasts

In the coming decade, the energy stored in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries will increasingly be made available to commercial buildings with intelligent building energy management systems (BEMS) to proactively manage energy consumption and costs. These concepts, known as vehicle-to-building (V2B) and vehicle-to-home (V2H) technology, have the potential to provide storage capacity to benefit both vehicle and building owners by offsetting some of the higher cost of PEVs, lowering buildings’ energy costs, and providing reliable emergency backup services.

Numerous pilot projects are now underway around the world to develop and test V2B technologies. The majority of these programs are part of larger projects that are testing microgrid and smart grid technologies. V2B is one element that is being integrated with renewable energy generation, smart buildings, smart EV charging, and in some cases, stationary backup storage. Although recent projects have grown more ambitious, with the number of PEVs participating in the projects increasing, they are still at the scale of integrating hundreds, and not yet thousands of vehicles. Pike Research forecasts that annual investments in upgrades to vehicles and to buildings, which include power electronics, inverters, and power management software, will grow to more than $76 million worldwide by 2020.

This Pike Research report examines the market opportunity for V2B technologies targeted at demand charge avoidance, peak shaving, time-of-use pricing, and other utility energy pricing schemes to reduce the cost of building operations and to provide emergency backup power. The study analyzes both the technology issues and government policy factors associated with the growth of V2B, as well as key barriers to adoption. Key market participants are profiled and forecasts are provided for V2B-enabled vehicles and service revenues through 2020.

Key Questions Addressed:
  • When will V2B services become commercially viable for commercial building owners?
  • What is the revenue potential for V2B-enabled vehicles in reducing building energy costs?
  • Which regions of the world are leading V2B development?
  • How will local energy markets and pricing affect the potential for V2B?
  • Which markets will be the early adopters of V2B technology?
  • What are the market drivers and challenges for adoption of V2B technology?
  • Who are the key players in the emerging V2B sector?
Who needs this report?
  • Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers
  • Battery manufacturers
  • BEMS and charging equipment suppliers
  • Commercial building owners and managers
  • Energy service companies
  • Fleet operators
  • Utilities
  • Government agencies
  • Military agencies
  • Investor community

Table of Contents

1.  Executive Summary

1.1   Introduction

1.2   Market Evolution

1.3   V2B Investment

1.4   Market Challenges

2.  Market Issues

2.1   Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales

2.1.1     Fuel Prices

2.1.2     Greening of Fleets

2.1.3     Legislative, Regulatory, and Other Drivers

2.1.4     Fuel Cell Vehicles

2.2   V2B Applications

2.2.1     Demand Charge Avoidance and Peak Shaving

2.2.2     Time-of-Use

2.2.3     Demand Response

2.2.4     Dynamic Pricing

2.2.5     Power Quality and Power Conditioning

2.2.6     Emergency and Backup Power Supply

2.2.7     Vehicle to Home

2.3   Vehicle-to-Building Value Proposition

2.3.1     Current State

2.3.2     Opportunities to Enhance the Value Proposition

2.3.2.1     Battery Cost Reduction

2.3.2.2     Charging Infrastructure Cost Reduction

2.3.2.3     Tie V2B with other BEMS Services

2.3.2.4     Microgrids

2.4   Building Energy Management Systems and Smart Grid Interface

2.5   Energy Storage in Buildings

2.5.1     Lead-Acid

2.5.2     Fuel Cells

2.5.3     Vehicle Batteries

2.5.3.1     Nickel-Metal Hydride

2.5.3.2     Lithium Ion

2.6   Vehicle to Grid

2.7   Smart Charging

2.8   Market Barriers

2.8.1     Higher Cost of PEVs Compared to ICE Vehicles

2.8.2     Impact on Battery Life of PEVs

2.8.3     Availability of PEVs for Building’s Energy Demand

2.8.4     Lack of Standard Deployment in Market

2.8.5     Utility Pricing Schemes

3.  Market Drivers

3.1   Fleets

3.2   Additional ROI from PEV Investment

3.3   Energy Security and Government as Purchaser

3.4   Selected Utility and Other Pilot Projects

3.4.1     Duke Energy

3.4.2     Electricité de France Smart Grid Demonstration

3.4.3     Smartcity Málaga, Spain

3.4.4     San Diego Gas & Electric

3.4.5     Portland General Electric

3.4.6     City of Boulder, Colorado

3.5   Regions Where No V2G Option Exists

3.6   Utilities Buy Power at Wholesale and Sell at Retail

4.  Technology and Equipment Requirements

4.1   Vehicle Energy Storage Performance Requirements

4.2   Onboard-based Vehicle Charging

4.2.1     Bi-directional Power Delivery

4.3   Offboard-based Vehicle Charging and Smart Charging Management

4.3.1     Equipment Connection Standards

4.3.2     Safety Standards

4.3.3     Society of Automotive Engineers

4.3.4     Japan

4.3.5     China

4.3.5.1     IEC

4.3.6     Communications Standards

4.3.6.1     Energy Transfer Standard

4.3.6.2     Messaging Standard

4.4   Building Energy Management Systems

5.  Key Industry Players

5.1   Charging Vendors

5.1.1     AeroVironment

5.1.2     Better Place

5.1.3     ClipperCreek

5.1.4     Coulomb Technologies

5.1.5     Eaton

5.1.6     ECOtality

5.1.7     Eetrex Incorporated (division of Methode Electronics, Inc.)

5.1.8     Nuvve

5.2   Utilities and Institutions involved in V2G/V2B

5.2.1     CALSTART

5.2.2     CPS Energy

5.2.3     Duke Energy

5.2.4     Endesa S.A.

5.2.5     The Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.

5.2.6     NRG Energy

5.3   Selected Building Energy Management and Grid Software Vendors

5.3.1     Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

5.3.2     Portland General Electric

5.3.3     PJM Interconnection

5.3.4     SAE International

5.3.5     Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center

5.3.6     University of Delaware

5.4   BEMS Suppliers

5.4.1     BuildingIQ

5.4.2     DENSO

5.4.3     Fleet Energy Company

5.4.4     GE Intelligent Platforms

5.4.5     Growing Energy Labs, Inc.

5.4.6     GridPoint

5.4.7     IBM

5.4.8     McKinstry

5.4.9     Schneider Electric SA

5.4.10   Siemens AG (Siemens Building Technologies)

5.4.11   Silver Spring Networks

5.4.12   ZBB Energy Corporation

5.5   PEV Cars

5.5.1     Chrysler

5.5.2     CODA Automotive

5.5.3     Honda

5.5.4     Mitsubishi

5.5.5     Nissan Motor Corporation

5.5.6     Toyota

5.6   Trucks

5.6.1     Boulder Electric Vehicles

5.6.2     Rapid Electric Vehicles

5.6.3     Smith Electric Vehicles

5.6.4     VIA Motors

6.  Market Forecasts

6.1   Addressable Market

6.1.1     Light Duty PEVs

6.2   V2B-enabled PEV Sales

6.2.1     Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks and Buses

6.2.2     Fleet PEV Sales

6.3   Smart Buildings

6.3.1     BEMS Market Size and Revenue by Region

6.4   Commercial EVSE

6.4.1     Charging Infrastructure in the Workplace

6.5   Residential EVSE

6.6   V2B Infrastructure Investment

7.  Company Directory
8.  Acronym and Abbreviation List
9.  Table of Contents
10.  Table of Charts and Figures
11.  Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • Annual Total V2B Investment by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Light Duty PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative Demand Charge Avoidance V2B Infrastructure Return on Investment per Vehicle Connection Point by Rate: 100% Benefit Accrued by Building Owner
  • Cumulative Demand Charge Avoidance V2B Infrastructure Return on Investment per Vehicle Connection Point by Rate: 70% Benefit Accrued by Building Owner
  • Cumulative Light Duty PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative V2B-enabled Light Duty PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative V2B-enabled Medium/Heavy Duty PEV Trucks (Class 3-8) Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative V2B-enabled Fleet (LD/MD/HD) PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Vehicle Investment, V2B-enabled Light Duty, Medium Duty, Heavy Duty PEVs by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Building Energy Management Systems Market Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Commercial Charging Equipment Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Workplace Charging Equipment Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Residential Charging Equipment Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • V2B Infrastructure Investment by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual V2B-enabled Light Duty PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual V2B-enabled MD/HD PEV Trucks (Class 3-8) Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual V2B-enabled Fleet (LD/MD/HD) PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Vehicle Investment, V2B-enabled Light Duty PEVs by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Vehicle Investment, V2B-enabled MD/HD PEVs by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Total Annual Charging Equipment Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • DC Charging Equipment Shipments by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • V2B Commercial Infrastructure Investment by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • V2H Infrastructure Investment by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Comparison of Energy Cost per Mile between Electric and Gas Vehicles
  • Electricité de France Smart Grid Demonstration
  • San Diego Gas & Electric Demonstration Project, “Utility Integration of Distributed Generation”
  • City of Boulder, Colorado Vehicle to Building Pilot Project
  • J1772  and the Combo Connectors and Combo Vehicle inlet developed by SAE

List of Tables

  • Annual Total V2B Investment by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual LD PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative Demand Charge Avoidance V2B Infrastructure Return on Investment
  • Emergency Back-Up Power Supply for Residential and Small Commercial: V2B Equipment vs. Diesel Power Generators
  • Annual V2B-enabled LD PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual V2B-enabled MD/HD PEV Trucks (Class 3-8) Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative Light Duty PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative V2B-enabled Light Duty PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative V2B-enabled MD/HD PEV Trucks, Class 3-8 Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Cumulative V2B-enabled Fleet (LD/MD/HD) PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual V2B-enabled Fleet (LD/MD/HD) PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Vehicle Investment, V2B-enabled LD/MD/HD PEVs, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Vehicle Investment, V2B-enabled LD PEVs, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Vehicle Investment, V2B-enabled MD/HD PEVs, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Building Energy Management Systems Market Revenue, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Building Energy Management Systems Market Revenue, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Commercial Charging Equipment Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Residential Charging Equipment Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Annual Workplace Charging Equipment Sales by Region, World Markets: 2011-2020
  • Annual EV Charging Station Unit Sales by Region, World Markets:  2012-2020
  • DC Charging Equipment Shipments by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Total V2B Infrastructure Investment, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • V2B Commercial Infrastructure Investment, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • V2H Infrastructure Investment, World Markets: 2012-2020
  • Potential Market Value of Energy Storage, California and United States: Next 10 Years

Downloads

Register or Login to download free sample content.


{"userID":"","pageName":"Vehicle to Building Technologies","path":"\/research\/vehicle-to-building-technologies","date":"4\/23\/2014"}