Vehicle to Grid Technologies

V2G Applications for Demand Response, Frequency Regulation,
Microgrids, Virtual Power Plants, and Renewable Energy Integration

Vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies have been in development since the beginning of the modern electric vehicle era, but are only now beginning to emerge in revenue-generating applications. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) has been a significant proponent of the technology, investing around $20 million in 2013 to install 500 V2G-enabled plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at bases in specific U.S. electricity markets. Additionally, demonstrations and pilot projects using fleet vehicles in the United States, several Western European countries, and Japan are beginning to show returns and prove that V2G technologies can serve as effective assets in various grid services.

Electricity markets in Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and developing economies with expected high penetrations of PEVs, like China, are likely to adopt electricity market structures and rules that enable greater opportunities for V2G business models in efforts to make the grid more energy efficient. Increased percentage penetrations of wind and solar in specific countries and regions will create a greater need for energy storage to both optimize integration of these resources and balance frequency disturbances created from their variability in generation. Grids with high percentages of wind resources in generation mixes will likely have higher returns for frequency regulation services. Navigant Research forecasts that global V2G frequency regulation revenue will reach $190.7 million by 2022.

This Navigant Research report analyzes the market opportunity for V2G technologies to be used to support grid reliability and stability. The study considers various policy factors associated with the growth of V2G, as well as significant market drivers and barriers. Global market forecasts for V2G-enabled PEVs and V2G capacity and revenue, segmented by region, extend through 2022. The report also examines the major V2G technologies and case studies and profiles key market participants.

Key Questions Addressed:
  • What challenges may hinder the widespread commercialization of vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies?
  • Which regulatory structures and grid service markets are best suited for V2G technologies?
  • Which regional markets are the best near-term opportunities and which are likely long-term opportunities?
  • What key factors influence V2G opportunities?
  • What costs are associated with various V2G systems (AC and DC)?
  • How will the market for V2G technologies evolve to allow individually owned PEVs to participate?
Who needs this report?
  • Automotive manufacturers and suppliers
  • Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) manufacturers
  • Energy service companies
  • Smart grid software companies
  • Grid operators
  • Utilities
  • Corporate and government fleets
  • Government agencies
  • Industry associations
  • Investor community

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Market Evolution

1.3  Market Forecasts

2. Market Issues

2.1  Definition and Scope

2.2  Introduction

2.3  V2G Markets

2.3.1   Regulated versus Deregulated Markets

2.3.2   Energy Storage

2.3.3   Ancillary Services

2.3.3.1  Frequency Regulation

2.3.3.2  Pay-for-Performance

2.3.3.3  Demand Response

2.3.4   VPPs and Microgrids

2.4  Market Barriers

2.5  Market Drivers

2.5.1   Wind

2.5.2   Solar

2.6  Market Participants

2.6.1   Automakers

2.6.2   Fleets

2.6.2.1  Military Fleets

2.6.2.2  Utility Fleets

2.6.2.3  Other Fleets

2.6.3   Utilities

2.6.4   Aggregators

2.6.5   Employers

2.7  Regional Markets

2.7.1   North America

2.7.2   Europe

2.7.3   Asia Pacific

2.7.3.1  Japan

2.7.3.2  South Korea

2.7.3.3  India

2.7.3.4  China

2.8  Case Studies

2.8.1   Grid On Wheels

2.8.2   EDISON Project

2.8.3   Project Plug-IN

2.8.4   U.S. DOD V2G Demonstrations

2.8.5   SPIDERS

2.8.6   MeRegio Mobil

2.8.7   Zem2All Malaga

2.8.8   Chrysler V2G Demonstrations

2.8.9   Green Crossover Town

2.8.10  Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project

3. Technology Issues

3.1  Technologies

3.2  Plug-In Electric Vehicles

3.2.1   LD PEVs

3.2.2   MHD PEVs

3.3  Bidirectional Power Delivery

3.3.1   AC V2G

3.3.2   DC V2G

3.3.3   Impact on Vehicle Batteries

3.3.4   Utility Upgrades

3.4  Communications

3.4.1   Smart Charging Management Systems

3.4.2   Utility Commands

3.4.3   Data Analytics

3.4.4   Standards

4. Key Industry Players

4.1  Introduction

4.2  Vehicle Technologies

4.2.1   AC Propulsion

4.2.2   AutoPort

4.2.3   BMW

4.2.4   Boulder Electric Vehicle

4.2.5   Chrysler

4.2.6   Daimler

4.2.7   Ford

4.2.8   General Motors

4.2.9   Honda

4.2.10  LUXGEN Motor

4.2.11  Mitsubishi Motors

4.2.12  Nissan

4.2.13  Smith Electric Vehicle

4.2.14  Toyota Motor Corp.

4.2.15  VIA Motors

4.3  Infrastructure Technologies

4.3.1   Coritech Services

4.3.2   DENSO

4.3.3   Eetrex

4.3.4   Efacec

4.3.5   Hitachi

4.3.6   Ideal Power Converters

4.3.7   Milbank Manufacturing

4.3.8   National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

4.3.9   NextEnergy

4.3.10  Nichicon

4.4  Smart Grid Communications

4.4.1   Akuacom

4.4.2   Autogrid

4.4.3   Bosch Software Innovations

4.4.4   Energy Systems Network

4.4.5   Greenlots

4.4.6   Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

4.4.7   Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

4.4.8   Rapid Electric Vehicles

4.4.9   Silver Spring Networks

4.4.10  Tendril

4.5  Energy Providers

4.5.1   California Independent System Operator (CAISO)

4.5.2   U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)

4.5.3   Endesa

4.5.4   EVGrid

4.5.5   NRG Energy

4.5.6   PJM Interconnection

4.5.7   Southern California Edison

4.5.8   University of Delaware

4.6  Other Industry Participants

5. Market Forecasts

5.1  Forecast Methodology

5.2  Vehicles

5.3  EVSE Infrastructure Capacity

5.4  V2G Infrastructure Capacity

5.5  Revenue Forecasts

5.5.1   Equipment Installations

5.5.1.1  Infrastructure Installations

5.5.1.2  Vehicle Installations

5.5.2   Frequency Regulation

5.6  Conclusions and Recommendations

6. Company Directory
7. Acronym and Abbreviation List
8. Table of Contents
9. Table of Charts and Figures
10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • V2G-Enabled PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled PEV Parc by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity Participating in Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Infrastructure Installation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Capacity Additions Participating in Residential Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Frequency Regulation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Fleet Frequency Regulation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G System Installation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity Participating in Residential Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity Participating in Commercial Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • LA AFB Bid, Charging Instruction, and Electricity Flow Chart
  • States with Deregulated Electricity Markets
  • The European Grid’s Five Synchronous Areas
  • Green Crossover Town Project

List of Tables

  • Light Duty PEV Parc by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Fleet PEV Parc by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Fleet MHD PEV Parc by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Total EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Cumulative EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • DC Charging Equipment Shipments by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Total Workplace EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Cumulative Workplace EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Total Residential EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Cumulative Residential EVSE Unit Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled PEV Parc by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled Fleet PEV Sales by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled Fleet PEV Parc by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled PEV Storage Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled PEV Storage Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled Fleet PEV Storage Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G-Enabled Fleet PEV Storage Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Fleet Capacity Additions by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Fleet Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Capacity Additions Participating in Commercial Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity Participating in Commercial Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Capacity Additions Participating in Residential Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity Participating in Residential Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Capacity Additions Participating in Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • Installed V2G Capacity Participating in Demand Response Programs by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G System Installation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Infrastructure Installation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Vehicle Equipment Installation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Frequency Regulation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022
  • V2G Fleet Frequency Regulation Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2013-2022

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