Zero Energy Buildings

Energy Efficient Products and Services for Net Zero Energy and
Nearly Zero Energy Commercial and Residential Buildings: Global Market Analysis and Forecasts

Zero energy building (ZEB) solutions are being pursued by governments, corporations, and individuals to minimize the carbon footprint of their buildings. A ZEB uses as much energy over the course of the year as it generates from onsite renewables. Also called net zero energy buildings and, in the European Union (EU), nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs), ZEBs bring together existing energy efficient technologies to form a high-performance building. Today, hundreds of pilot ZEBs, encompassing commercial and residential buildings of all types (retail, office, educational, government, etc.), are being developed, many as pilot projects to showcase technology.

While several pilots are trying to prove the investment savings in lower energy bills, a stronger driver for the adoption of ZEBs is regulation. Policies like the EU’s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) and California’s evolving Title 24 building code are forcing ZEB markets to come into place for new commercial, new residential, and retrofitted commercial space. One notable challenge is the variety of definitions of a ZEB and the lack of a single standards body to identify what success looks like. Although the global outlook for ZEBs is strong, the market will start slowly. According to Navigant Research, global ZEB revenue is expected to grow from $629.3 million in 2014 to $1.4 trillion by 2035.

This Navigant Research report defines and analyzes the global market for ZEBs with a focus on six product and service categories: lighting, walls and roof, glazing, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, renewable energy, and soft costs. The study provides an analysis of the region-specific and worldwide market issues, including drivers and barriers, associated with ZEBs. Global market forecasts for revenue, broken out by region, product/service, and development type (commercial construction, commercial retrofits, and residential), extend through 2035. The report also examines the key technologies and services related to ZEBs, as well as the competitive landscape.

Key Questions Addressed:
  • What is a zero energy/net zero energy/nearly zero energy building?
  • How is policy driving the adoption of zero energy buildings (ZEBs)?
  • What are the main barriers to widespread ZEB adoption?
  • What kinds of technologies are used in ZEBs?
  • Who are the primary market players in the ZEB industry?
  • How are the market players influencing the regional ZEB markets?
Who needs this report?
  • Energy efficient equipment vendors
  • Real estate investors and property managers
  • Production homebuilders
  • Smart building service and technology vendors
  • Solar hardware vendors
  • Electric utilities
  • Government agencies and policymakers
  • Investor community

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1  Introduction

1.1  Overview

1.2  Key Market Trends

1.3  Global Market Size and Forecast

2. Market Issues 

2.1  Introduction

2.2  Definition of ZEBs

2.2.1   Other Net Zero Approaches

2.3  Market Drivers

2.3.1   Commercial versus Residential Buildings

2.3.2   New Construction versus Retrofits

2.3.3   Legislation and Building Code

2.3.4   The Rise of Green Buildings

   2.3.4.1  Green Buildings, LEED, and ZEBs

2.3.5   ZEB Standards and Certification Bodies

   2.3.5.1  Passive House

   2.3.5.2  Other ZEB Leaders

2.3.6   Technology Innovation and Cost Decreases

2.4  Market Barriers

2.4.1   Cost Premiums

2.4.2   ROIs

2.4.3   Grid Integration

2.4.4   Electric Vehicles and Rising Plug Load

2.4.5   Construction and Operation

2.4.6   Terminology and Awareness

3. Regional Analysis 

3.1  Regional Overview

3.2  North America

3.2.1   U.S. Federal Government

   3.2.1.1  U.S. DOE

   3.2.1.2  U.S. GSA

3.2.2   California

   3.2.2.1  TDV

3.2.3   Massachusetts

3.2.4   Canada

3.3  Europe

3.3.1   EU Policies

   3.3.1.1  EPBD

   3.3.1.2  Very Low Energy Houses

3.3.2   United Kingdom

3.3.3   France

3.3.4   Germany

3.4  Asia Pacific

3.4.1   Japan

3.4.2   Singapore

3.4.3   China

3.4.4   Rest of Asia Pacific

3.5  Latin America

3.6  Middle East

3.7  Africa

4. Technology Issues

4.1  Technology Overview

4.2  Siting and Context

4.2.1   Integrated Design

4.2.2    Building Design

4.2.3   Building Energy Modeling

4.2.4   Location-Based Issues

4.2.5   Calculating Renewable Power Potential

4.2.6   Campuswide Integration

4.2.7   Microgrids and Nanogrids versus ZEBs

4.3  Building Envelope

4.3.1   Wall Insulation and Building Envelope

4.3.2   Windows and Glazing

   4.3.2.1  Modern Window Characteristics

   4.3.2.2  Smart Glass

4.3.3   Thermal Mass Storage and ZEBs

4.3.4   Roofs and ZEBs

   4.3.4.1  Cool and Green Roofs

4.4  Energy Efficiency and Integrated Design

4.4.1   HVAC Systems

   4.4.1.1  Heating

   4.4.1.2  Cooling

   4.4.1.3  Ground-Source Heat Pumps

   4.4.1.4  IAQ

4.4.2   Energy Efficient Lighting

4.4.3   Daylighting and Fenestration

4.4.4   Hot Water

4.4.5   Direct Current Power

4.5  Plug Loads

4.5.1   Energy Efficient Appliance Standards

4.5.2   Smart Appliances

4.5.3   Electric Vehicle Integration

4.6  Building Energy Management

4.6.1   Building Controls

4.6.2   BEMSs

4.6.3   Continuous Commissioning

4.7  Renewable Energy

4.7.1   Solar PV

   4.7.1.1  Inverters and Micro-Inverters

   4.7.1.2  BIPV

4.7.2   Solar Thermal Systems

4.7.3   Biomass and CHP

4.7.4   Fuel Cells

4.7.5   Energy Storage Technology

4.8  Net Zero Water

5. Key Industry Players  

5.1  Overview

5.2  Real Estate, AEC, and Software Firms

5.2.1   Autodesk

5.2.2   CBRE

5.2.3   DPR Construction

5.2.4   Hines

5.2.5   JLL

5.2.6   Masdar

5.2.7   Meritage Homes

5.2.8   Related Companies

5.3  Energy Efficient Equipment and Performance Firms

5.3.1   Altura Associates

5.3.2   Big Ass Solutions

5.3.3   Building Robotics

5.3.4   Daikin

5.3.5    Honeywell

5.3.6   Schneider Electric

5.3.7   Siemens Building Technologies

5.3.8   SunPower

5.3.9   View Inc.

6. Market Forecasts 

6.1  Overview

6.1.1   Products and Services Segmentation

6.2  Global Outlook

6.3  North America

6.3.1   Commercial

6.3.2   Residential

6.4  Europe

6.4.1   Commercial

6.4.2   Residential

6.5  Asia Pacific

6.5.1   Commercial

6.5.2   Residential

6.6  Middle East

6.6.1   Commercial

6.6.2   Residential

6.7  Rest of World

6.8  Conclusions and Recommendations

7. Company Directory
8. Acronym and Abbreviation List
9. Table of Contents
10. Table of Charts and Figures
11. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue, World Markets: 2014-2035
  • NBI-Tracked New Zero Energy Buildings by Year, North America: 1994-2013
  • Total Building Stock by Building Type, World Markets: 2014
  • Total Commercial Building Stock by Development Type, World Markets: 2014
  • Average Solar PV Installed Price by Size, World Markets: 2013-2020
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • The Evolution of Building Energy Demand and Generation
  • Representative ZEB and Its Associated Components
  • Zero Energy Building Annual Energy Balance
  • Successive Code Improvements for California’s Building Stock
  • Building Performance Mechanisms
  • A Schematic Representation of an Integrated Design Team
  • Modeled PV Potential in the United States
  • PVWatts Screenshots of PV Size Estimation
  • Ciralight Global Positioning System-Powered Solar Tracking Sunlight
  • BIPV at the UC Merced Science and Engineering 2 Building
  • The U.S. Army’s Net Zero Implementation Strategy

List of Tables

  • NBI-Tracked New Zero Energy Buildings by Year, North America: 1994-2013
  • Average Solar PV Installed Price by Size, World Markets: 2013-2020
  • Total Building Stock by Building Type, World Markets: 2014
  • Total Commercial Building Stock by Development Type, World Markets: 2014
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Total Commercial Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, North America: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Total Commercial Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Europe: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Total Commercial Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Asia Pacific: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Total Commercial Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Middle East: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Construction Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • Commercial Retrofit Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • Total Commercial Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • Residential Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Rest of World: 2014-2035
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2014-2035
  • Total Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, World Markets: 2014-2035
  • nZEB 2020 Roadmap Status, European Union: 2012

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