Volvo has long sold cars that are considered among the safest in the world. Since the 1940s, Volvo has been at the forefront of introducing innovations that include laminated safety glass, crush zones, three-point seatbelts, and more recently, pedestrian detection with automatic braking. As Volvo prepares to launch its first all-new production vehicle since being acquired by China’s Geely Group, the company has announced plans for a test of highly automated vehicles on public roads near its Gothenburg, Sweden headquarters.
Self-Driving Cars a Reality
Self-driving vehicles from automakers, suppliers, and technology companies have become commonplace recently on Silicon Valley roads. However, all of those vehicles are under the control of the engineers trying to refine the complex control software required to make them work reliably. Beginning in 2017, Volvo plans to put a fleet of 100 autopilot-equipped XC90 SUVs into the hands of regular Swedish drivers.
Reiterating its oft-stated goal of achieving sustainable mobility and a crash-free future, Volvo has worked to design the autopilot system it is building into the XC90 to be robust enough to let ordinary drivers give complete control.
“Making this complex system 99% reliable is not good enough, you need to get much closer to 100% before you can let self-driving cars mix with other road users in real-life traffic,” Erik Coelingh, technical specialist at Volvo, told me. With that in mind, Volvo has recognized the limitations of current technology, so the XC90 will be equipped with a combined array of radar, lidar, ultrasonic, and camera sensors.
Sensor Array on Autonomous Volvo XC90
Coelingh acknowledges that there are some fundamental problems that cannot be overcome. For example, lidar sensors cannot see through fog or rain and cameras cannot see lane markers that are obscured by snow. In addition to using multiple sensor types, Volvo is taking care in packaging the sensors to minimize the risk of obstruction from the elements such as snow and salt buildup.
The goal is to allow drivers to spend time on secondary tasks without constantly monitoring the system. The vehicles will be able to execute automatic lane changes and enter and exit a limited access highway. Soft degradation of the system will extend the time between the driver being alerted and when they have to take over. If the driver does not respond by taking over control in a timely manner, the vehicle will attempt to pull over and come to a safe stop.
Fully Autonomous vs. Self-Driving
Despite all of that, there is an important distinction between vehicles that are capable of fully autonomous operation and those that are entirely self-driving. The Volvo falls into the former category, with the ability to handle the driving when conditions permit, while reverting to human control in many scenarios. Google’s prototype pod car, which was designed without a steering wheel or pedals, is in the latter category. For the foreseeable future, driverless vehicles are likely to remain restricted to closed environments where they don’t need to interact with traditional vehicles.
As detailed in Navigant Research’s report, Autonomous Vehicles, 40% of new vehicles will have some form of automated driving capability by 2030. The bulk of those are likely to be similar in concept to what Volvo will be testing on Swedish roads in 2017. Although consumer surveys have indicated strong interest in autonomous vehicles, it’s too early to tell how much of that interest will be retained as consumers become aware of the real-world limitations of autonomous technology. Volvo’s test program in Sweden might give the first real feedback on this topic.
Tags: Autonomous Vehicles, Clean Transportation, Electric Vehicles, Transportation Efficiencies
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