Navigant Research Blog

Washington Utility Tests New Path to Integrating EVs

— July 27, 2016

EV RefuelingEastern Washington isn’t an especially well-known plug-in vehicle (PEV) market given most PEV sales in the state are concentrated in Seattle and along the Pacific coast. However, the utility serving a large portion of eastern Washington, Avista, has made an ambitious and refreshingly unique move in preparation for the emerging technology. On July 27, Avista announced it will develop a pilot to demonstrate vehicle-grid integration (VGI) technologies in partnership with Greenlots across 200 Level 2 chargers and seven direct current (DC) fast chargers at residential, workplace, and public charging sites.

The purpose of the pilot is to determine how much PEV load can be shifted from peak load times to off-peak times without using time-of-use (TOU) rates. The hope is that the pilot will show that PEV load may be managed in a manner that reduces grid operating costs and increases grid reliability, thus optimizing potential benefits of PEVs to both utilities and ratepayers.

A Unique Approach

What makes Avista’s pilot unique is its holistic approach encompassing all forms of charging and the use of more nuanced demand-side management mechanisms than TOU rates. Including residential, workplace, and public charging within the pilot enables Avista to collect data on the uninfluenced charging behavior of program participants and then assess how demand response (DR) signals sent to PEV owners changes charging behavior across the charging network. The use of DR signals rather than TOU rates prevents new peak creation at the beginning of off-peak periods and maintains higher levels of revenue per kWh consumed by PEVs than would a TOU rate while still providing energy savings to PEV owners.

The pilot kicks off this August and will run for 2 years. Single family and multi-unit dwelling residences will have 120 chargers installed, while the remaining 80 chargers will be placed at select workplaces or public locations alongside the seven aforementioned DC fast chargers. The chargers will be integrated into Greenlots’ SKY charge management platform, which is also being leveraged in a similar pilot for Southern California Edison that looks specifically at workplace charging.

Fast Growing Customer Base

Avista’s pilot comes in response to the strong possibility that its PEV population is going to increase dramatically. Washington’s Electric Vehicle Action Plan seeks to ensure 50,000 PEVs are on the state’s roads by 2020, up from the 12,000 registered in early 2015. As of the writing of the action plan, only a few hundred of these registrations were in counties served by Avista. Yet, the market for PEVs is anticipated to increase significantly in the next 3 years as 200-mile range battery EVs (BEVs) at under $40,000 are introduced.

On behalf of mass market long-range BEVs, Navigant Research forecasts in its Electric Vehicle Geographic Forecasts report that Washington will meet its 2020 goal sometime in 2018, with sales expanding into suburban and rural markets. If the PEV market lives up to this forecast, then PEV populations in eastern Washington counties are expected to be at least 7 times greater than current levels by the end of 2020.

PEVs in Use in Eastern Washington Counties: 2016-2020

Washington PEV

(Source: Navigant Research)

 

Demand Response Prepares for the 2016 Summer Season

— June 24, 2016

??????????????????June has been a much less newsworthy month than May was for the demand-side management industry. But it does represent the traditional start of the summer demand response (DR) season, so we’ll see what Mother Nature has in store for the weather. Will it be a busy DR season or a light one, as the last few years have been?

Drivers of DR Growth

Meanwhile, macro-level factors continue to act as both drivers and barriers for the global growth of DR. California, for example, continues to offer new opportunities for DR participation. The most recent case is the California Public Utilities Commission approving a decision that allows Southern California Edison to spend an additional $8.7 million on DR programs this summer to mitigate potential natural gas shortages stemming from the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak.

Outside of the United States, there are a number of examples of markets becoming more open and attractive for DR resources. From Canada to Europe to Asia, market structures are being reformed to allow DR to compete against generators for revenue. In Ontario, the Independent Electricity System Operator plans to launch a capacity market where DR will be able to compete with generation and other resources. Two of Europe’s largest electricity markets—France and the United Kingdom—plan to open capacity markets by 2017 that would allow DR participation. South Korea now allows DR to compete equally with generators in the electricity market.

And Barriers …

However, specific barriers to DR development still exist due to environmental and reliability concerns. The amount of DR capacity available for this summer was reduced due to the expiration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) rules for emergency generators (EGs) for DR purposes. Last year, the U.S. Court of Appeals overturned an EPA rule that allowed 100 hours of EG use for emergency DR programs. It granted the EPA a 1-year stay, which expired on May 1, 2016. The EPA has no plans to make changes to the rule, meaning that the court’s ruling will remain intact, affecting upward of 20% of DR resources in some markets.

The recent PJM capacity auction cleared less DR capacity than the previous year, mostly due to lower prices. But in the longer term, PJM is phasing out its summer DR categories in favor of annual participation requirements. Industrial customers may have fairly flat load profiles throughout the year, but many commercial customers rely on air conditioning (AC) measures to respond to DR events. On a portfolio level, it will come down to a risk/reward calculation. Residential DR that gets bid into the PJM market by utilities running their own DR programs are almost exclusively focused on summer-focused loads like AC and pool pumps. These programs offer virtually no winter DR capability and would not be eligible under the new rules unless they could combine a bid with a winter-type of resource.

All of these dynamics and more are covered in the Navigant Research report, Market Data: Demand Response. I look forward to seeing anyone who will be attending the National Town Meeting on DR in Washington, D.C. in July.

 

May Comes in Like a Lion for Demand-Side Management

— May 11, 2016

multimeterLast week was a busy one in the demand-side management (DSM) industry, with M&A activity and regulatory news both making headlines. It started first thing on the morning of May 2 with the announcement that Opower was being bought by Oracle for over $500 million. This move shouldn’t be so surprising since it was just over a year ago that the two companies announced a partnership to enable utilities to integrate Opower’s tools into Oracle’s systems and vice versa.

EnerNOC is now the only publicly traded pure-play DSM provider left standing. Could it be that dealing with the regulatory risk and long timeframes for deal making in the utility industry is a mismatch with Wall Street’s pressure for quarterly earnings? Opower appeared to have a good pipeline of projects, but the market did not seem to value it enough to provide attractive returns for investors. Furthermore, the energy software business requires extensive R&D spending, so the prospects for an annual profit were too long for the NASDAQ set. As part of a larger organization, the long project runways could be blended in with other quicker turnaround products, and R&D expenditures could be swallowed among the much larger expenses at Oracle. The only question is how committed Oracle is to Opower’s legacy DSM products versus focusing on solutions more directly in line with its business.

CPower on the Move

Later that same day, word spread that CPower acquired rival Johnson Control’s Integrated Demand Resources business. This move thins the already-small commercial and industrial demand response (DR) aggregation sector. It also continues the trend of larger organizations getting out of the DR business, which started when Constellation sold off CPower in 2014. For CPower, the acquisition is the latest move to expand following the purchase of Demand Response Partners in 2015. CPower and Johnson Controls still intend to retain a commercial relationship that would allow CPower to offer DR services to Johnson’s customers, and CPower customers could gain access to Johnson’s building management technologies for their facilities.

These cases appear to show some contradictory trends between acquisitions and divestitures of DSM businesses by larger entities. However, they both seem to agree on the point that DSM may survive either as part of a bigger firm or as an independent private company, but as a standalone public entity, the road ahead is hard. Look at Comverge, which went public in 2007 but went back private a few years later and has seemed to steadily grow under the radar since then, or Nest, which is able to keep its finances out of public view as part of the Google empire.

Emergency Generators

The final piece of noteworthy news relates to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) rules for emergency generators (EGs) for DR purposes. Last year, the U.S. Court of Appeals overturned an EPA rule that allowed 100 hours of EG use for emergency DR programs. It granted the EPA a 1-year stay, which expired on May 1, 2016. The EPA has no plans to make changes to the rule, meaning that the court’s ruling will remain intact, affecting upward of 20% of DR resources in some markets.  However, there is still some ambiguity in the remaining EPA rule language, so the fight will continue to allow EGs to participate to some extent.

If the first week of May was any indication, it could be an interesting summer for DSM, but these recent developments may have been just some early fireworks before a regular course of business settles in.

 

Take Control of Your Future, Part II: The Power of Customer Choice and Changing Demands

— May 9, 2016

DataIn my last blog post, I discussed seven megatrends that are fundamentally changing how we produce and use power. In this blog, I discuss how customer choice and changing customer demands have become the leading drivers of industry transformation.

Move from “Big Power to Small Energy”

Customer choice is driving a large move from big power to small energy. More and more customers are choosing to install distributed energy resources (DER) on their premises. DER solutions include distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency, distributed storage, microgrids, and electric vehicles. This year, DER deployments will reach 30 GW in the United States. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), central generation net capacity additions (new generation additions minus retirements) are estimated at 19.7 GW in 2016. This means that DER is already growing significantly faster than central generation. On a 5-year basis (2015-2019), DER in the United States is growing almost 3 times faster than central generation (168 GW vs. 57 GW). This trend varies by region because policy approaches, market dynamics, and structures vary. However, the overall move to small power will persist. In other words, the movement toward customer-centric solutions and DER will ultimately become commonplace worldwide.

Annual Installed DER Power Capacity Additions by DER Technology, United States: 2015-2024

Jan Blog Update(Source: Navigant analysis)

Customer Choice: Everything Is Changing

Customers want to self-generate and sell that power back to the grid. Customers also want new energy management products and services from their utility or other providers. The rise of the prosumer and active consumer movement is being fueled by three things:

  • A growing number of customers care about how and where their energy is generated and about the impacts of global warming.
  • Unprecedented and rapid technology advances are bringing greener energy choices directly to consumers.
  • New and disruptive entrants are rapidly emerging that give customers meaningful energy usage insights and options related to their homes, businesses, and transportation choices.

Where we see this movement picking up pace is in the increased number of commercial and industrial (C&I) customers that are choosing to implement their own more sustainable energy solutions. Amazon, Apple, Cisco, Google, Honda, Walmart, and other large energy users have increased their focus on installing onsite solar. Walmart has 142 MW of solar PV capacity at 348 installations in the United States, according to the Solar Energy Industries Association’s (SEIA’s) Solar Means Business 2015: Top U.S. Corporate Solar Users report. The retail company has a 100% renewable energy target, together with 57 others currently as part of RE100. And then there is the “Power Forward” movement, where 215 Fortune 500 companies are pursuing their own investments in local greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, sustainability, or renewable energy initiatives. Power Forward 2.0 states that if incumbent utilities are not proactive (e.g., offer power purchases agreements, financing, rates, or project development), then they will be bypassed in favor of third-party energy providers (including non-regulated subsidiaries of incumbent utilities).

What Is New?

The focus on customer engagement and improving the customer experience is not new. In recent years, utilities have tried to improve the customer experience by introducing broader self-service, multi-channel options, and advanced information on energy products and usage. Such improvements include offering energy management applications like DTE’s Insight app.

What is new (and isn’t getting enough attention) are the actual implications of customer choice. With the increased availability of DER and new energy management technologies, the breadth and diversity of customer needs and interests that the utility will have to deal with are growing exponentially. Meeting diverse and changing customer demands is forcing utilities to rethink their role in the energy value chain. The range of possible services goes well beyond what they currently provide, including building energy management solutions, fast demand response, distributed generation, storage, microgrids, etc. Utilities must understand the full impact of all this on their customer service processes and systems. They must also understand how DER and advanced energy management solutions will affect their strategy, product innovation, business models, and the way they operate the grid. Taking an integrated and holistic approach is key.

Who Else Wants to Play?

Besides the incumbent utility, we see new entrants coming into the market that are focused on meeting the changing demands of large energy users. In the last 6 months, we have seen several announcements of new business models going after this market. Some examples are described below.

  • Edison International is launching a business that will help reduce energy costs, improve efficiency, and offer more environmentally friendly options for large energy users. The company’s new subsidiary, Edison Energy, aims to serve commercial buildings, data centers, retail centers, healthcare operations, and educational institutions nationwide.
  • Duke Energy’s Commercial portfolio president, Greg Wolf, has said, “In addition to utility-scale solar projects, we’ve also made investments in distributed generation and energy management systems for commercial and industrial companies.” Last year, Duke Renewables bought majority stakes in REC Solar (for commercial businesses) and Phoenix Energy (energy management systems and services for C&I customers).
  • GE Current combines GE’s products and services in energy efficiency, solar, storage, and onsite power with our digital and analytical capabilities to provide customers—hospitals, universities, retail stores, and cities—with more profitable energy solutions,” said Jeff Immelt, Chairman and CEO of General Electric (GE). Customers include Walgreens, Simon Property Group, Hilton Worldwide, JPMorgan Chase, Hospital Corporation of America, Intel, and Trane.

What Does All This Mean for the Incumbent Utility?

The incumbent utility (which includes the traditional competitive retailer not offering DER) has to adapt. Customers will look for better, greener, and cheaper alternatives, and more and more of these alternatives are becoming available. What’s more, the fight has started for the business of large C&I customers. If only a small percentage of large C&I customers switch over, the incumbent utilities will be in trouble. This will affect their revenue streams, roles, and the cost versus value of the centralized managed grid.

Facing declining revenue as customers consume less and produce more of their own power, utilities are faced with potential stranded generation (and eventually transmission and distribution) assets. This makes it even harder to make large investments (aimed at improving reliability and resilience) in their current grid while also making it more intelligent. And finally, they have to make investments in developing DER capabilities, offerings, and businesses. Given these challenges, utilities must play both defense and offense.

An updated defensive strategy will entail:

  • Engaging with customers to understand their customer choices and changing demands vis-a-vis price and reliability.
  • Engaging with regulators to find equitable ways to charge net metering customers for transmission and distribution services that fairly address the cost to serve.
  • Improving customer service and grid reliability at the lowest prices possible.
  • Developing utility-owned renewable assets to appeal to environmentally conscious customers.

Playing offense is even more important. Utilities must:

  • Create new revenue streams through the development of new business models, products, and services.
  • Transform their organizations and culture in order to fully integrate sales, customer service, and operations.
  • Upgrade the grid and operations to facilitate the integration of DER.

The above objectives can only be accomplished by implementing new business models that include developing, owning, and operating integrated DER such as community solar, customer-sited storage, microgrids, charging stations, building energy management systems, and home energy management systems. These goals also require utilities to provide third-party financing for DER and offer new products and services focused on energy efficiency and demand response.

There is no going back to the old ways of doing business. Utilities must lead—by playing both defense and offense—or they run the risk of being sidelined.

This is the second in a series of posts in which I will discuss each of the power industry megatrends and impacts (“so what?”) in more detail. My next blog will cover the rising number of carbon emissions reduction policies and regulations. Stay tuned.

Learn more about our clients, projects, solution offerings, and team at Navigant Energy Practice Overview.

 

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