This week, Tesla revealed the first details about its plan to build an enormous battery factory to provide cells for its future electric vehicles. Among the revelations: the factory will be powered primarily by its own solar and wind power parks; it will produce more than 50 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of battery packs a year; and it will cost $6 billion to build. To kick things off, Tesla also filed to sell $1.6 billion worth of convertible bonds today.
While these are intriguing details, there’s still a lot to determine about what this factory will actually look like. Here are my questions about the GigaFactory:
Why isn’t California one of the states being considered for the plant? The company named Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas as potential host sites. To build the batteries in a different state and then ship them to California, even by rail, will add considerable cost to the batteries. Why not locate the factory at or near the company’s vehicle assembly plant in Fremont, California? My guess is that environmental regulations for such an enormous factory are one negative factor weighing against California. That leads to a second question: Where will the cars be built? The batteries coming from this factory will be going into Tesla’s next-gen passenger car, not the Model S or Model X. That means that a car factory could also come along with the battery plant.
How much wind and solar will be needed to supply power to the plant? A battery factory making 50 GWh of batteries will require enormous amounts of electricity – some for the actual making of the batteries and some for the initial charging of the batteries that is the last step in the manufacturing process. This could require as much as 1 GW of renewable energy projects. Is the price of those installations factored into the stated $6 billion cost of the factory?
Where will the extra 15 GWh of batteries come from? In the slides that Tesla distributed, the manufacturing capacity of cells was stated as being 35 GWh. But the manufacturing capacity of packs was stated as being 50 GWh. So where will the extra 15 GWh of cells come from? From other battery company factories throughout the world? From more GigaFactories?
Why is this factory so cheap? $6 billion doesn’t sound very cheap. But it actually pencils out to a little more than two-thirds the cost, on a per GWh basis, of other large battery factories. Clearly, the large scale of the factory will make equipment purchases cheaper. Nevertheless, the estimated cost of the factory seems extremely low and brings into question whether Tesla and its battery partners have some new manufacturing innovations up their sleeves.
Why wasn’t Panasonic mentioned in the news release? Most observers assume that Tesla will build the factory with Panasonic, which makes all the cells for the Model S and the upcoming Model X. However, the news release only stated that the car company’s “manufacturing partners” will help finance and build the factory. Is it possible that another battery supplier is inserting itself in between Panasonic and Tesla?
How much will the cells cost once the factory is up to scale? Tesla CEO Elon Musk has stated in the past that Tesla buys its cells for between $200 and $300 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The slides distributed with the GigaFactory announcement claim that the facility will be able to cut the costs of the battery packs by 30%. But how much of that comes out of cell costs versus price cuts in the other equipment in the pack? Does this get Tesla down to $175 per kWh? To $100 per kWh?
There’s no denying that this is a bold venture. If the company manages to follow through on these plans, it will construct the biggest factory in the world (not just for batteries, but for anything). And it will yet again echo Henry Ford’s spirit with a 21st century version of the original megafactory, the River Rouge complex.
Tags: Advanced Batteries, Clean Transportation, Electric Vehicles, Energy Storage, Smart Energy Program, Tesla Motors
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