Navigant Research Blog

Slower Networks May Be the Answer for Cities, Utilities, and Buildings

— May 29, 2015

A communications technology that promises lower bandwidth and higher latency seems an unlikely proposition in an age when the demands for speed and capacity are rising inexorably. However, low-power wide area networks (LPWANs) are set to play an important role in expanding the possibilities for the Internet of Things (IoT) in cities, buildings, and utility networks. LPWANs are targeted at applications that have low or infrequent data throughputs but which benefit from low-cost modems (less than $5), cheap connectivity (a service cost of a few dollars per year), long-range access, deep penetration, and an extended battery life for devices (around 10 years on a standard battery).

LPWANs come in a number of flavors. In February of this year, the LoRa Alliance was launched by a group of technology suppliers and telecoms operators that support the LoRaWAN specification by developed semiconductor company, Semtech. Initial supporters of the Alliance include Cisco, IBM, Sagemcom, and Semtech, alongside telecoms such as Bouygues Telecom, KPN, SingTel, and Swisscom. One of the first project announcements is partnership between French IoT supplier Actility and Swisscom to deploy a LPWAN around the cities of Geneva and Zurich.

Other players in the LPWAN space are focusing on the evolution of 4G LTE standards that will enable low-cost, low-power communications to support machine-to-machine applications. Several telecoms and equipment providers have announced what is referred to as LTE-M projects, including Nokia and Korea Telcom. Vodafone has also announced its own low-power IoT service, dubbed the Cellular Internet of Things, which it has developed in partnership with Huawei.

Another significant LWPAN initiative comes from French communications company SIGFOX, which is working globally with network system operators to deploy LWPANs using its ultra-narrowband technology. In the United Kingdom, for example, Arqiva is rolling out a SIGFOX-compatible network to 10 cities initially.

Do the Pros Outweigh the Cons?

LWPANs offer the prospect of sensors and other intelligent devices being able to connect instantly into a communications network at a cost of a few dollars a year. LPWANs are suitable for applications where high bandwidth and low latency are less important. LPWANs are not suited, for example, to applications requiring high bandwidth (such as video streaming), low latency, or the continuous tracking of moving objects. LPWANs are largely complementary to existing network technologies, but may present competition to radio frequency (RF) mesh technologies for applications such as smart street lighting and smart parking, and even some forms of smart metering.

LPWANs allow for low-cost piloting and easy scaling of innovative applications. A supplier developing a smart city solution, for example, could quickly demonstrate the benefits of an application for air quality monitoring. Similarly, a utility could use a sensor connected to a LPWAN to monitor assets that lack local power (such as gas and water pipelines) or where the business case does not justify a more expensive solution. A facility manager could use LPWANs to fill gaps in their existing building management system or to retrofit sensors to older buildings.

The LPWAN market is in the innovation phase, where an explosion of different approaches is to be expected and indeed welcomed. However, multiple versions and standards are likely to confuse potential adopters, and industry players need to push ahead on the development of open standards and interoperability models. Over the longer term we will see a growing focus on the so-called HetNet environments in cities, which will allow seamless integration across network protocols depending on location and requirement. In the meantime, low-power networks can be an important accelerator for smart cities and other IoT markets.

 

How the Internet of Things is Changing Healthcare

— February 25, 2015

Much talked about in the energy efficiency sector, the Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a world where everything from lamps to HVAC systems to entire grids will one day be connected. The concept has gained traction in recent years, but deployments remain modest. Only an estimated 1% of the world’s buildings use systems to control and network lighting, and only 7% of commercial building lighting is operated using smart controls.

However, controls products offer huge energy consumption savings opportunities. Enlighted Inc., one lighting controls vendor, claims that its wireless sensor system can cut commercial building energy consumption by 50% to 75%. In an environment where healthcare costs are predicted to increase by 6% annually for the next decade and uncertainty lingers concerning the Affordable Care Act, cost-savings opportunities like that are enthusiastically welcomed.

Update Needed

In the healthcare sector, IT investments increasingly emphasize connectivity and networked systems. Networking enables healthcare systems to lower costs while improving patient experiences and facilitating an advanced degree of care customization. Particularly in the United States, where the cost of patient discharge is about $18,000 (versus $6,000 in other developed nations), networked systems can dramatically cut administrative costs.

One of the greatest benefits is the ability to test and diagnose devices remotely. This can help to reduce device downtime and avoid unexpected breakdowns, thus avoiding shutdown costs and patient rescheduling. Connected devices, such as MRIs, CT scanners, and lab test equipment, can signal when critical operational components are being depleted.

Efficient scheduling is another benefit of IoT technology in healthcare facilities. By leveraging utilization statistics, hospital employees are able to optimize equipment use and avoid over-scheduling procedures.

Seeing the Patterns

The expanded capabilities of smart, connected products and the data they generate are becoming necessary in the increasingly competitive healthcare sector. In addition to cost-cutting benefits, the IoT is opening extensive opportunities for improved operational efficiency and patient satisfaction. This emerging Internet of Healthy Things is composed of apps and hardware that promote positive health outcomes and focus on preventive healthcare for individuals. For example, Fitbit’s wearable device captures health-related data, such as sleep patterns, activity levels, and other personal metrics, to provide a complete picture of behavior and baseline vital signs. Medical device companies offer home health-monitoring systems that allow physicians to remotely monitor their patients’ clinical status. For example, Propeller Health’s asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) tracker allows a doctor to remotely monitor patients’ symptoms. Other apps exist to monitor a range of other health issues, including diabetes.

Although the healthcare sector has been traditionally slow to embrace new technology, the IoT offers improvements for both facility management and individual patient care. As tele-health and other in-home care options continue to expand, IoT-enabled devices can enable progressive hospitals to remain competitive—and improve outcomes.

 

Building Systems Learn to Communicate

— September 25, 2014

In the Hype Cycle, the Internet of Things (IoT) has reached the peak of inflated expectations and may even be over-hyped.  Many observers have commented on its adoption in home automation, high-voltage transmission systems, and smart cities.  The state of IoT in commercial building automation is murkier.

In a recent survey of building professionals administered by CoR advisors, 41% of the respondents reported not being familiar with the term “Internet of Things.”  Hype about IoT in building automation, it seems, is lagging, but its promise may be just as enticing in buildings as in other applications.  Indeed, more respondents indicated that they think the IoT will have an effect on how their building is run over the next 2 to 3 years than those who indicated they were familiar with it.

At a certain level, machine-to-machine communications, the foundation of the IoT, have been present in building automation systems (BASs) for decades.  In heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), a temperature sensor can communicate with a variable air volume box to modulate the supply of conditioned air.  In turn, this variable air volume box communicates with an air handling unit that supplies the proper amount of air.  In most buildings, this happens on the HVAC control network.  The promise of IoT is for this to happen not on a network, but on the network, for any machine to communicate with other machines.

Open Sesame

This integration is happening.  Daintree Networks, for instance, offers seamless HVAC control, lighting control, and power metering.  Similarly, Automated Logic has introduced solutions to integrate different control silos.  One of the most interesting integrated deployments is the Government Services Agency headquarters in Washington, D.C.  The building management system knows when an occupant badges in, where that person is going, and what temperature they want the space they’ll occupy.  The next step is getting building automation to interact with a mobile phone or an automobile.

Unlocking the promise of IoT requires multiple companies and multiple systems to interact with each other.  It requires disparate BASs to not only communicate with other BASs, but to also communicate with anything.  Thankfully, the industry is moving in that direction.  Over the past 20 years, open protocols, such as BACnet, LonTalk, DALI, and Modbus, have gained widespread acceptance.  Unfortunately, they don’t communicate with each other very well.

Another survey, this one by Echelon (which recently announced an increased focus on the IoT), outlined the path to IoT in buildings.  Seventy percent of respondents reported that they plan to integrate disparate BASs onto a common platform.  Nearly a third of respondents indicated a plan to do so in the next 12 to 18 months.  Regardless of whether the IoT is over-hyped or unfamiliar, it’s coming to commercial building automation systems soon.

 

Internet of Things Reaches the Smart Home

— June 9, 2014

In the last several years, a lot of online buzz has promoted the Internet of Things (IoT), much of it centered on connecting more devices in the home, with a particular emphasis on enhancing energy efficiency.

And nothing gets the blogosphere more amped up than an announcement from Apple, which unveiled its HomeKit home automation software framework during its latest annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference.   HomeKit is the underlying technology that will enable users to connect in-home devices like light bulbs, appliances, and thermostats with iPhones and iPads.

Energy Aware

Apple aside, there are other significant developments surrounding the IoT and smarter homes.  For instance, the Consumer Electronics Association recently approved a new standard (CEA-2047/CE-Energy Usage Information) that would give users a more detailed picture of device-specific energy consumption.  Though not mandatory for CE device makers, the new standard sets up a framework for manufacturers to provide energy consumption data that could be fed to an energy management system or to an application and present it to consumers on TVs, PCs, or mobile devices.  In essence, the standard enables devices to be energy self-aware and share that energy data with other devices.  The new standard is also compatible with the Green Button initiative, an industry-led move to provide utility customers easier access to their energy consumption data.

Not all of the action in this field is in the United States.  In Europe, energy provider Vattenfall has partnered with Deutsche Telekom (DT) to offer a new smart home software platform to its customers for controlling their lighting, heating, and appliances from PCs, smartphones, or tablet devices.  The platform, developed by German startup GreenPocket, is already used as the basis for a home automation and security system called Qivicon that DT sells to its customers.  DT, which controls mobile carrier T-Mobile USA, has plans to bring the Qivicon product to the United States and the United Kingdom.

Still a Few Glitches in the System

Clearly, the IoT has begun to move beyond early concept to actual in-home devices and systems that provide automation and energy efficiency.  Machine-to-machine activity working in the background is a reality.  My own experience with connected devices, though, has been somewhat underwhelming.  I have a Nest thermostat, and I’ve installed a few Philips Hue LED light bulbs that can be controlled from my smartphone.  While the Hue bulbs are cool and all, they aren’t all that great.  The original software was awful, and the third-party app I bought isn’t much better.  The thermostat works fine, but the energy savings have been elusive, as I’ve previously mentioned.   Plus there are downsides to a more connected home, as The New York Times’ Nick Bilton pointed out in his piece on the dark side of IoT.  And even simple problems expose the weaknesses in the system; my wireless router was replaced recently, and for a time the thermostat was offline until I set up the new WPA2 passcode.  Not a big problem in the warmer days of spring, but what if there is an outage during a cold snap or while we’re away on vacation?

So, while the geek inside me longs to embrace this move to the IoT and the greater efficiency, the reality is we are only at the quarter-mile mark into a marathon, and there will be more bumps along this road.

 

Blog Articles

Most Recent

By Date

Tags

Clean Transportation, Digital Utility Strategies, Electric Vehicles, Energy Technologies, Policy & Regulation, Renewable Energy, Smart Energy Practice, Smart Energy Program, Transportation Efficiencies, Utility Transformations

By Author


{"userID":"","pageName":"Internet of Things","path":"\/tag\/internet-of-things?page=24","date":"2\/22\/2018"}