The last few months have been big for cellulosic biofuels in the United States. The first of three commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants to come on line this year, Project Liberty, opened in Iowa in September. In July, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) expanded the definition of the cellulosic biofuel pathway to include biogas used for transportation via compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), or electricity. At full capacity, Project Liberty will produce 25 million gallons annually; the two other plants scheduled to open this year will run at 25 and 30 million gallons, respectively. If the plants are successful, this could be the beginning of cellulosic ethanol supplanting corn-based ethanol’s hold in the U.S. biofuel market.
Cellulosic ethanol’s major advantage over corn-based ethanol is that its feedstock is organic material waste rather than food/grain. This avoids controversial issues regarding food vs. fuel, and minimizes the conversion of arable land to farm land, which experts contend makes cellulosic ethanol far more environmentally sustainable and less politically divisive than corn-based ethanol. The disadvantage of the fuel is that it’s ethanol.
Ethanol’s end market is gasoline, primarily used for light duty vehicles in the United States and Brazil. It can only supply up to 10% of the fuel in a vast majority of the vehicles in use in the United States due to regulatory constraints and reluctance on the part of automakers and fuel retailers to adopt higher ethanol-gasoline blends. If gasoline consumption in the United States was growing, this aspect wouldn’t be a problem, but it’s not.
In Navigant Research’s reports, Global Fuels Consumption and Light Duty Vehicles, it is estimated that light duty vehicles account for 94% of gasoline consumption in the United States. Over the next 10 years, the light duty vehicle fleet will become far more energy efficient, thanks to vehicle electrification, vehicle lightweighting, and engine downsizing. The end result is that the amount of gasoline-ethanol blends consumed in 2023 will likely be 12% less than 2014 levels.
The Cellulosic Edge
Consumption of ethanol is driven by the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates specific volumes of biofuels be blended into the fuel supply. The standard is adjusted each year to reflect anticipated industry production volumes by biofuel pathway, so that biofuel producers can be assured their product will be purchased by blenders.
Given cellulosic ethanol’s sustainability appeal over conventional ethanol, and the limited market in which these pathways compete, and despite the high cost of cellulosic compared to conventional ethanol, it’s likely that annual adjustments to the RFS will ensure that cellulosic production feeds into the U.S. fuel pool at the expense of conventional ethanol. That means that the EPA may be inclined to lower conventional ethanol mandates against increases in cellulosic capacity – making cellulosic more valuable to blenders than conventional ethanol. As a result, conventional U.S. ethanol will likely become an export fuel, going to foreign markets that currently make up a little over 45% of the global market.
Tags: Biofuels, Clean Transportation, Ethanol, Policy & Regulation, Renewable Energy, Smart Transportation Program
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