The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to finalize the Clean Power Plan (CPP) this summer; as part of the plan, states will have 1 to 3 years to submit State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to the EPA for review. Some states are already starting the planning process to develop an SIP, and most are beginning with stakeholder meetings that include utilities and other major players in their state. Other states are waiting to see the final regulation before they begin.
States face a complicated web of decisions when crafting SIPs. The figure below shows a simplified hierarchy of the paths that they may take. States are unlikely to go through the decision process in a linear fashion; instead, they will need to consider all options and narrow them down based on their existing policies, resources, and stakeholder goals, among other factors.
SIP Example Decision Process
(Source: Navigant Consulting)
SIP or FIP?
The first decision a state needs to make is whether to submit an SIP. If a state does not submit an SIP, the EPA will impose a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP). The EPA has indicated that they may include insights on what an FIP will look like when they release the final rule this summer. Some states have passed legislation limiting their state agencies from submitting an SIP without legislative approval, which could impede those states from submitting an SIP at all.
A decision that will need to be made early in the process is whether or not a state wants to work with other states to submit a regional plan. There have been proposals, for instance from Duke Nicholas Institute, that individual plans could be crafted to be standalone and still allow trading of credits with other states, similar to the way that renewable energy credits (RECs) can be traded among states even though Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) policies were not coordinated prior to implementation. However, many states are already in discussions about coordination efforts— for example, 14 Midcontinent states submitted comments to the EPA on its proposal and held a stakeholder event on June 5.
If states do work together on regional implementation plans, under the proposed rule they would have an additional year before their plan is due to the EPA. This allows additional time to coordinate among the many players involved across all coordinating states, but narrows the amount of time between when the implementation plan is approved by the EPA and compliance begins— potentially as little as 1 year.
Targets and Policies
Another decisions that states must states weigh in on is whether or not to use the rate-based target laid out by the EPA or to convert it to a mass-based target. This decision is interrelated with the kind of policy regime a state chooses to include in its SIP. A rate-based target may be more appealing to states that impose individual unit obligations on fossil units in their state, as it eliminates the uncertainty surrounding future load growth. Conversely, a mass-based target may be easier to implement in the northeast where a mass-based cap-and-trade system already exists.
States will also need to determine how to integrate existing renewable and energy efficiency policies into their SIPs and decide if new policies are needed. These include RPS, energy efficiency standards, and updates to building codes, and can be combined with cap-and-trade, as in California, or standalone.
There are many additional considerations for states to take into account as they craft implementation plans. For the best overall outcome it is recommended that states start early, have meaningful stakeholder involvement throughout the process, and leverage modeling and analytical tools where possible.
Tags: Carbon Emissions, Clean Power Plan, Energy Efficiency, Policy & Regulation, State Implementation Plan
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