NASA scientists recently predicted that California has just 1 year of water left to the catastrophic tune of a million Facebook users simultaneously hitting the Share button. California’s water problems are not entirely self-inflicted, coming in the middle of what is reportedly the worst drought in 1,200 years. However, some of these problems are caused by poor water management.
California’s water laws dedicate around 40% of total water to farming and agriculture—about 80% of what isn’t strictly devoted to maintaining wildlife and the environment. Farming requires a lot of water, and California water law does not improve the situation. There is a huge incentive for farmers to waste water, meaning the so-called breadbasket of America can’t sustainably keep producing the same crops it currently does. California, if it were a country, would have the eighth largest economy in the world, so shutting down the pipes is not exactly an option.
Technology to the Rescue
So, what is being done to keep lawns green in The Golden State? Water appliance standards have been enacted, which are projected to save more than 100 billion gallons per year. But even massive usage restrictions won’t be enough to keep California going. William Shatner has proposed a $30 billion Kickstarter campaign for a pipeline that could transport water, above ground, from Seattle into Lake Mead. Orange County began recharging its drinking water aquifer with purified wastewater in 2008, but the catchphrase toilet-to-tap makes this a less-than-popular option in the public eye.
One solution that appears more glamorous is the desalination of seawater. In Carlsbad, California, construction is underway on a $1 billion desalination plant, the largest in the Western Hemisphere. Due to open in early 2016, this plant could provide up to 50 million gallons of fresh water each day, supplying around 112,000 households. Desalination is, however, massively expensive and can discharge large amounts of concentrated brine directly into the ocean. Permanent desalination plants (such as the one in Carlsbad) can only treat around 35%–50% of the water they bring in, according to Stanley Weiner, CEO of STW resources.
Salttech, a Norwegian company, recently demonstrated its DyVaR Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) water processing technology in Midland, Texas. This technology promises to recover up to 97% of the water processed, and discharge only solid salt and minerals, thus eliminating the problem of brine disposal to the ocean. Salttech has plans to begin an ocean desalination project on the coast of California. This technology also claims to be economical, reducing the cost of desalination from $1,850–$2,000 per acre-foot to $1,100–$1,350 per acre-foot, also according to Stanley Weiner. With the cost of desalinated water currently hovering around twice that of imported water, these technologies must make some major cost reductions before they can be widely adopted. Until then, California may have to start construction on Mr. Shatner’s pipeline.