Navigant Research Blog

An Energy Cure for Hospitals

— August 12, 2014

When it comes to energy reduction in buildings, friendly competition is a strategy that gains a lot of visibility.  In recent blogs, here and here, we’ve discussed how the U.S. Department of Energy has set up competitions for financial institutions and office buildings to become as efficient as possible.  Companies like Opower rely on peer pressure to help communities lower their residential energy bills.  The latest to join in the fray are U.S. hospitals.

The Energy to Care program, run by the American Hospital Association, takes a slightly more advanced route to creating an energy reduction competition between buildings.  The Better Buildings Challenge relies on buildings uploading their ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager data (either automatically or by hand) into the system and then submitting the results to be a part of the competition.  In Energy to Care, the ENERGY STAR benchmarking data is only the first part of the competition, and the approach used can be adapted as a real building energy management system (BEMS) to aid in ongoing energy savings.

Cost Reductions

The latest Energy to Care program is built on top of Lucid Design’s BuildingOS platform, a BEMS solution that makes integrating data from building energy systems easy and fast.  Lucid Design made its name by engaging through the development of their dashboards, commonly found in universities and government buildings.  BuildingOS offers tools to integrate data from multiple sources, including building automation systems, plug-load monitors, and renewable power generators.  Along with the data integration are visuals and analytics that can aid facility managers and sustainability professionals in their efforts to improve building performance and reach sustainability goals.

Hospitals are in need of this kind of care.  As the second-highest user of energy among all building types in terms of energy intensity and the consumers of 4% of all U.S. energy, hospitals need to leverage these tools to reduce the $8.8 billion a year in energy costs the industry shoulders.  Given the competiveness in the healthcare market, every dollar saved on operations is welcome.

In Energy to Care, the Portfolio Manager data is incorporated in BuildingOS.  Depending on the richness of the data uploaded, the hospital then has access to analytics and graphics that can quickly identify problems associated with energy use in the building.  Hospital energy managers can understand which systems are consuming more power and when power use varies beyond expected levels over the course of a day or week.  The ease of integration of these tools will make energy conservation measures easy to identify and their effectiveness measurable in the long run.  While Lucid Design will benefit from the widespread deployment of its product, the hospitals, and in turn the public, will benefit from reduced costs.


Preparing for the Worst, Cities Seek Resilience

— August 7, 2014

The Rockefeller Foundation is asking cities to apply for the latest phase of its 100 Resilient Cities Centennial Challenge.  This challenge aims to enable 100 cities to better address the shocks and stresses of the 21st century.  The selected cities receive support from the Rockefeller Foundation to create and implement resilience plans and to hire chief resilience officers (CROs) to oversee strategies.  Thirty-two cities – including, for example, Bangkok, New Orleans, Durban, Mexico City, and Rotterdam – were selected in the first phase of the competition.  San Francisco appointed the first CRO in April 2014.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s 2014 report on the impacts of global climate change highlights the particular vulnerability of urban infrastructures.  The impact of climate change on cities can take many forms – including increased temperature, drought, and storms – but the most direct threat comes from rising sea levels.  Approximately 360 million urban residents live in coastal areas less than 10 meters above sea level.  China alone has more than 78 million people living in vulnerable, low elevation cities.  Miami, New York City, and Tokyo are also among the top 20 cities at the highest risk of coastal flooding, along with Asian megacities such as Mumbai, Shanghai, Bangkok, and Dhaka.   The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan and Hurricane Sandy off the East Coast of the United States in 2012 demonstrated how even the most advanced cities can be devastated by extreme events.

After the Flood

The threat to American cities is further emphasized in the Third National Climate Assessment from the U.S.  Global Change Research ProgramMiami, in particular, is developing into a test case for the impact of the climate changes on U.S. cities and the ability of civic and business leaders to collaborate in response.

Resilience can be characterized as the ability of cities and communities to bounce back from catastrophic events, as well as respond to more gradual changes that threaten well-being or economic stability.  Resilience is not just a question of identifying and acting on specific climate change impacts; it also requires an assessment of each city’s complex and interconnected infrastructure and institutional systems.   New York, for example, initiated a major study of the how the city’s infrastructure and services can be better designed to cope with events like Hurricane Sandy – including more resilient, distributed energy grids and new approaches to land use policy in flood-prone areas.

Urban Sensitivities

Resilience is also a driver for new technology adoption.  The Sensing City project in Christchurch, New Zealand is an interesting test case for how smart city technologies can support resilience planning.  Christchurch was devastated by an earthquake in 2011 that left 185 people dead; the rebuilding project is estimated to eventually cost around NZ$40 billion ($35 million) in total.  The aim of Sensing City is to use sensor technologies and data analytics, including smartphones and sensors embedded in new construction, to lay the foundation for a healthier, more sustainable, and more resilient city.

Coping with the threats and uncertainties of the 21st century will require a deeper understanding of the normal operations of a city and its vulnerabilities.  That’s why resilience is becoming one of the key attributes of any smart city and a significant driver for the smart city market.


Refrigeration’s Chilling Effect on Energy Efficiency

— August 6, 2014

China’s meteoric rise has had profound impacts on its economy, people, and environment.  Navigant Research has examined the consequences this growth has on energy used by buildings and cities.   As the country of 1.3 billion becomes more prosperous, the next transformation occurring is in cold storage.  In a recent article, The New York Times Magazine delved into the adoption of refrigeration in China.  On the consumer level, China’s domestic refrigerator ownership has grown from just 7 % in 1995 to 95% in 2007.  As a result, the cold chain (the temperature-controlled storage and distribution infrastructure) is growing as well.

The United States, which leads the world in cold storage, currently has about 3 times the cold storage per capita as China does.  In China, less than one-quarter of meat and 5% of fruits and vegetables travel through a cold chain, compared to about 70% of U.S. food.  As China’s living standards rise, refrigeration and energy use are set to explode.  Currently, cooling accounts for only about 15% of global electricity consumption.

The threat associated with increased living standards is not isolated to China.  An estimated 40% of fruits and vegetables in India are lost to spoilage as a result of poor infrastructure.  Although the Indian economy has not performed as robustly as China’s, there is hope that growth will pick up shortly.  However, with that hope comes the risk of unsustainable energy consumption on a staggering scale, as India and China combined account for more than one-third of the world’s population.  As such, vast advances in the energy efficiency of refrigeration are needed.

Birth of the Cool

Refrigeration, like air conditioning, relies on the vapor compression cycle.  The vapor of a refrigerant is compressed to the point where it is superheated and then travels through a condenser where heat is rejected from the refrigerant vapor and it is condensed into a liquid.  Next, the liquid goes through a throttle valve where it evaporates into a low-temperature, low-pressure mixture of liquid and vapor.  Lastly, this mixture travels through an evaporator that absorbs heat from the space being refrigerated and evaporates the mixture so that it can be compressed and the cycle can start again.

Incremental improvements have been made in the efficiency of refrigeration, but there is a physical limit to how efficient the vapor compression refrigeration cycle can be.  It may be time to rethink the fundamentals of refrigeration.  The U.S. Department of Energy, for instance, has been investigating the use of non-vapor compression technology.  But the answer may not be cooling at all.  Cooling is a means to an end; it is an effective method of inhibiting microbial growth.  But it is not the only method to do so.  Fenugreen FreshPaper uses naturally occurring antimicrobials to keep fruits and vegetables fresher longer – with near-zero energy use.


Energy Efficient Solutions for Retail Stores Begin to Emerge

— July 23, 2014

The retail landscape is in flux, to say the least.  Earlier this year, Staples announced the closure of 225 stores.  Troubled Best Buy isn’t closing any stores this year, but it was one of several retailers to close stores in 2013.  Things aren’t all so bleak for big box retail, though.  Costco is in the midst of a 5-year plan to open 150 new stores.  Meanwhile, Walmart announced a strategy of shifting toward 10,000 SF to 40,000 SF grocery and convenience-type stores, away from 200,000 SF superstores.  Large retailers are rethinking their physical footprint.  Part of the shifting landscape comes down to the fact that brick-and-mortar stores, particularly warehouse-type stores, are costly to operate.  Moreover, the energy efficient operation of these assets is hindered by factors such as unpredictable occupancy, high ceilings, and vast open space.  Yet, smart building technologies are being developed for the specific challenges that face retail buildings.

There are numerous approaches to improving the energy efficiency of buildings (see Navigant Research’s reports Energy Efficiency Retrofits for Commercial and Public Buildings and Building Energy Management Systems).  But many of these aren’t appropriate for large, big box retail buildings.  A recent brief from Johnson Controls’ Institute for Building Efficiency provides a thorough analysis that quantifies the cost and payback of various building efficiency improvements for commercial office buildings.  It details 16 measures that represent 90% of possible energy savings.  Unfortunately, most of those do not address big box retail; they focus on using energy for building occupants, not for empty spaces.  That translates to providing cooling, lighting, and even power for computers only when occupants are in the space.  Although these measures work in office buildings, healthcare facilities, schools, and many other commercial buildings, they don’t provide the same opportunity to many retail spaces.

What Does Smart Retail Look Like?

Many retailers have aggressively pursued demand-controlled ventilation, lighting and controls upgrades, and advanced efficiency compressors for HVAC and refrigeration to reduce operating costs.  But the cutting edge of smart building technology for retailers focuses more on the consumer experience than on energy efficiency.  GE Lighting and BryteLight, for instance, are using next-generation LED fixtures to provide location-based services for retailers.  Similarly, the Open Group, a consortium that enables the achievement of business objectives through IT standards, has outlined a use case of using sensors to provide real-time information to retail customers.

However, MIT’s SENSEable City Lab has recently unveiled a concept to use smart sensing technology to reduce energy consumption.  Local Warming creates a controllable heating zone around an individual occupant, leaving the rest of the space at a neutral temperature.  The solution relies upon a Wi-Fi-based motion tracking system that controls a system of mirrors and rotating motors to direct an infrared energy beam onto an occupant.  In the future, LED technology can further reduce the complexity of the system by allowing a more distributed source of infrared heat.

Local Warming Concept

(Source: SENSEable City Lab)

While the system is not specifically designed for retail, the most compelling application for Local Warming is clearly big box retail.  These retail spaces are typically large and sparsely occupied.  Additionally, infrared heating has long been employed in large retail spaces.  Infrared heaters, which transfer heat through radiation rather than convection, warm occupants without having to warm the air.  In warehouse-like stores, with lots of air relative to the number of people in it, infrared provides an efficient method of heating.  Local Warming may signal a shift in the use of advanced sensor and location-based services in retail to the development of more advanced efficiency solutions.


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