Navigant Research Blog

Japan’s METI Supporting Smart City Projects

— July 2, 2015

According to Navigant Research, a smart city is characterized by the integration of technology into a strategic approach to sustainability, citizen well-being, and economic development. While there may be various definitions of a smart city, in many cases, smart cities are desired in order to cope with the growing urban population, achieve sustainability goals, and maintain economic competitiveness through innovation and technology development. In addition, city resilience—the ability to recover from catastrophic events—has become increasingly important in the context of climate change.

In Japan, smart city projects are being led by the central government and local governments, as well as by the private sector. However, due to the centralized political model and events requiring national response such as the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, large-scale smart city projects are usually initiated by the central government through the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). After the 2011 earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, Japan had a distinct motive to promote smart cities as means to reconstruct affected urban areas.

Subsidized Projects

There have been two waves of smart city projects subsidized by the METI under its Science, Technology and Innovation budget. The first wave of projects is the Test Projects for Next-Generation Energy and Social System. In 2010, METI solicited local governments for smart city project applications. In April 2010, four cities were selected—Yokohama, Toyota City, Keihanna, and Kitakyushu—to receive METI subsidies that amount to ¥126.5 million. Initially, the pilot cities focused on improving the quality of life and showcasing innovative technologies. However, after the 2011 earthquake, there was a paradigm shift to work toward reducing energy consumption and improving energy efficiency.

These four cities have become the first successful operational pilots in Japan. Some areas of success include demand response programs, which reduced consumption during peak period by 20% in Kitakyushu; home energy management (HEM) programs in which 1500 homes in Yokohama had HEM systems installed in 2013; vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology; and smart metering. Details on these projects and updates can be found on the Japan Smart City Portal.

In 2012, METI pursued a second wave of subsidized smart city projects to reconstruct cities affected by the earthquake to become more resilient. In 2012, 10 cities were selected for the Projects for Promoting Introduction of Smart Communities program with a budget of ¥8.06 billion. Also, because of the widespread shutdown of the nation’s nuclear power plants post-Fukushima, Japan has been decidedly promoting renewable energy resources to meet its demand. In 2012, the country introduced a feed-in tariff system, as well. While the second wave of smart city projects are still in the planning stage, thanks to the earlier success in the four pilot cities, Japan is getting closer to realizing its aspiration to create the Japanese model of smart cities to export.

 

Bristol, U.K. Plans To Be Open, Programmable City

— May 20, 2015

The City of Bristol’s selection as the European Green Capital 2015 is an example of the increasingly visible role that U.K. cities are taking in the evolution of smart city ideas and solutions.  The title may be largely symbolic, but it is one that many European cities covet as a validation of their innovation in sustainable living and development.  As with all such awards, there is plenty of skepticism as to how far the realities match the rhetoric, but the scope and ambition of the city’s program are impressive. Bristol has been keen to build on the award and use it to add significant momentum to an already impressive list of projects cutting across the energy, transportation, building, and technology sectors.

A good example of Bristol’s ambition is the recently launched Bristol is Open, a joint venture between the city council and the University of Bristol to develop an open, high-speed network that will foster innovation across multiple city applications. The project has funding support from the U.K.’s Department of Culture, Media and Sport and Innovate UK, and is also building on the supercomputing capabilities of the University of Bristol.

Experimentation as a Service

A core element of the project is a City Operating System (CityOS), developed by the University’s High Performance Networks research group. The CItyOS will manage the machine-to-machine communications across the city using a software defined network (SDN)  approach to improve manageability, integration, and accessibility.  The network is being developed according to OpenDaylight standards as part of the project’s commitment to openness, which extends to procurement and data management, as well as hardware and software.  All the data generated will be anonymized and made public through the city’s open data portal. The project team will also proactively share its findings with other cities, technology companies, universities, and citizens. The network will be used by technology companies, research organizations and small and medium-sized enterprises to develop and experiment with new solutions in urban mobility, energy efficiency, environmental monitoring, and health. The team has defined its approach as City Experimentation as a Service.

The project will make use of three networks: a 30-GB  fiber optic network, a series of Wi-Fi wireless networks along the Brunel Mile area of the city, and a radio frequency mesh network based on city lampposts.  The aim is to eventually expand the networks beyond the city center into the wider city region, creating an open, programmable region covering one million people. Among the partners already signed up for the project is Silver Spring Networks, which is providing the  mesh network technology to connect the city’s streetlights and to provide a platform for other applications, such as traffic monitoring, air quality control, and safety cameras.

Creating the Digital City

The Bristol project is an example of how  the Internet of Things (IoT) and smart city concepts are coming out of the labs and small-scale pilots and onto the streets of major cities.  Other examples include an extended smart street lighting network in Copenhagen and Barcelona’s plan to develop a multi-application Urban Platform.

If successful, the Bristol model could be a showcase for how network infrastructure and a CityOS can provide a shared capability for access and innovation.

 

Crowd Data Drives New Mobility Technology

— May 4, 2015

City planners and traffic management agencies are avid consumers of data, which is critical to both planning and managing transportation services. Traditionally, government agencies relied primarily on data from loop detectors installed in streets and highway. These sensors tell transportation officials how many cars pass by the sensors, allowing them to understand the volume of traffic on the roadways they manage. This then feeds into infrastructure plans, as cities understand where the heaviest demand is and where the pinch points are in the roadways.

This data is also used to report when traffic has stopped in the roadway, which is used for traveler information systems. What these sensors cannot tell you is where the traffic came from, where it ended up, or even how fast it’s traveling. And these sensors are not cheap. It’s a significant investment to install them in existing roadways, and even building then into new roadways is costly, given that the sensors must be highly robust and maintained throughout the year in challenging conditions.

Listen to the Crowd

Crowdsourced data, gathered from GPS navigation devices, cellphone records, or mobile apps, is becoming an increasingly viable way for cities and transportation agencies to acquire data without expensive infrastructure projects. And these crowdsourced data sources can supply new data points that help cities get a much more complete view of mobility, like pedestrian and bicycle traffic and parking usage.

Traffic data company INRIX has been incorporating data from a variety of sources to supplement its own vehicle probe data for years. The company aggregates data from GPS navigators and mobile phones in vehicles to provide a more complete picture of the traffic landscape in real time. AirSage utilizes cellular phone data for its traffic data offerings. Through partnerships with Sprint and Verizon, AirSage receives anonymized real-time data from cellular phone activity which the company provides to transportation planners and transit planners. AirSage provides origin and destination data, as well as speeds.

Cellular based traveler data also enables traffic managers and planners to see the movement of pedestrians and cyclists, as well as motorized vehicles Still, there are limitations: namely, that AirSage cannot tell what type of motor vehicle it is tracking.

We Know Where You’ve Been

But the most interesting new crowdsourcing data potential is from companies that aren’t even in the data aggregation business. Just as Google and Facebook have found data to be their most valuable assets,  app providers like Uber and Strava, are discovering the potential value in the data they amass.

Earlier this year, Uber announced it would offer its data to cities, with the Boston the first recipient. Uber is offering this as a free service, likely in part as an effort to present a kinder, gentler image after a recent spate of negative press. Uber has also partnered with the Starwood Preferred Guest program. Program members can receive reward points for using Uber; customers who opt-in to Uber’s Starwood point program agree to giveStarwood access to their Uber activity.

This sort of data exchange has huge revenue potential for Uber, as it’s easy to imagine how many businesses would be interested in tracking the travel habits of Uber users. trava, a company that allows runners and cyclists to log and share data on their athletic activity has also found a way to turn its data into revenue. The Oregon Department of Transportation (DOT) is buying Strava’s data to better understand the routes used by cyclists. This is another way for cities and states to fill out their picture of mobility and provide better services for their residents.  The potential for crowdsourced data is huge, and we expect to see more partnerships like these develop as transportation planners begin to grasp the full potential of crowdsourced data. You can also expect renewed privacy concerns, especially when the data comes from users who are not fully aware that they are opting in to share their data when they download an app.

 

LEDs Light Capital’s Streets

— April 13, 2015

There’s a certain glow to Washington, D.C. these days. It isn’t the cherry blossoms emerging after a dismal winter, or even the recent visit by Prince Charles and Duchess Camilla. It’s the street lights. In 2013, the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) announced plans to upgrade 71,000 street lights to light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. The installations finally started in March.

Each LED lamp consumes about 350 kWh less annually than the high-pressure sodium lamps they are replacing. In addition to lower energy, LEDs have a longer lamp life, which translates to lower maintenance costs. The quality of the light is also better. LEDs provide white light as opposed to the yellow light of high-pressure sodium. According to the DDOT, the white light provided by LEDs lets security cameras more accurately record color. As a result, the color of cars, clothing, or people involved in crimes caught on camera can now be better identified. Moreover, LED lighting enables more systematic and dynamic control of street lighting, as networked control systems can be added to street lights that can bring additional energy savings.

Free Lunch, Almost

Indeed, the numerous benefits of LED street lighting, coupled with the falling price of LEDs, is driving a global transition from older lamp technologies. Many cities around the world have announced similar programs to deploy LED street lights, including Los Angeles, Acapulco, and Guangdong. According to Navigant Research’s report, Smart Street Lighting, LED luminaires are expected to rapidly surpass high-pressure sodium luminaires as the leading technology sold.

So what should Washington, D.C. do with all of these savings? The city council has a long history of finding innovative new ways of spending surplus money (or not). Annual energy savings of about $40 per light for roughly 70,000 lights translates to $2.8 million — not bad for a city of 658,893. That’s enough to buy every resident a rush-hour trip on the metro from RFK Stadium to Friendship Heights. Unfortunately, it’s not quite enough for a chili dog at Ben’s Chili Bowl. Alternatively, spending the entire $2.8 million on a single item sounds fun. The Pagani Zonda Revolucion comes to mind.

 

Blog Articles

Most Recent

By Date

Tags

Clean Transportation, Electric Vehicles, Policy & Regulation, Renewable Energy, Smart Energy Practice, Smart Energy Program, Smart Grid Practice, Smart Transportation Practice, Smart Transportation Program, Utility Innovations

By Author


{"userID":"","pageName":"Smart Cities","path":"\/tag\/smart-cities","date":"7\/3\/2015"}